Manual (november, 2015)

Reference chain annotation

November, 2015 – Draft


0. Format of the annotation

1. Bare noun phrases
2. Determined noun phrases
3. Pronominal noun phrases

4. Special cases


(for a descriptive Index by reference pattern, see here)
(for a complete general Index, see here)


0. Format of the annotation


0.1 Preparatory indexing of nouns

Indexes in sub-tags are appended to all POS tags N*
(N, N-P, NPR, NPR-P) 
in the corpus,
in the format of a four-digit number:

(N*=xxxx ...)

(N=0001 noun)      N, common noun, singular
(N-P=0002 nouns)   N-P, common noun, plural
(NPR=0003  Noun)   NPR, proper noun, singular
(NPR-P=0004 Nouns) NPR-P, proper noun, plural

Each and every N* tag in the text is given their own number,
in the order they appear in the text.
This applies also to repeated occurrences of
the same ‘noun’ throughout the text:

(N=0001 noun) This is N* number 0001, containing 'noun'
(N=1001 noun) This is N* number 1001, also containing 'noun'
(N=1002 noun) This is N* number 1002, also containing 'noun'
(N=1003 noun) This is N* number 1003, also containing 'noun'

As will be exposed below, the numbers on the POS N* tags
constitute the basis for the marking of reference IDs in the phrase level. 

In order to help the coding of Referent IDs in the phrases,
in addition to the simple number sub-tagged in each tag N*,
a ‘clone’ of the number received by the first tag N*
in which the contained noun appeared for the first time in it

is added to the simple number, after a symbol ‘/’:

(N*=yyyy/a/xxxx ...)

(N=0001/1/0001 noun) This is N* 0001, first occurrence of 'noun' 
(N=1001/2/0001 noun) This is N* 1001, second occurrence of 'noun' 
(N=1002/3/001 noun) This is N* 1002, third occurrence of 'noun' 
(N=1003/4/001 noun) This is N* 1003, fourth occurrence of 'noun'


0.2 Main annotation

0.2.1 General format

Annotation for Referent ID

Referent ID annotation is in the format of
a number with four digits (0000), appended to the syntactic tags
for Noun Phrases (NP*) with the symbol ‘=’.

The annotation is applied to all NPs in the corpus,
in high nodes or in complement position
(for the purposes of this annotation we will refer to WNPs as Noun Phrases):

(NP*=xxxx (...))

(NP-SBJ=0001 (...)) High NP, Subject 
(NP-ACC=0002 (...)) High NP, Object
(NP-LFD=0003 (...)) High NP, Left-dislocated
(NP=0004     (...)) Low NP (e.g., complement of PP).

(WNP=0005    (...)) WNP

– Additional annotation

Additional annotation may be appended after the target Referent ID
in cases where a new referent forms a relation with a previously mentioned referent (for instance, by being a particular case of a wider group or class),
and this is explicit in the internal structure of the noun phrase
(for instance, in the case of noun phrases with ‘outro’, ‘other’)

There are two formats for the additional annotation:

(i) the related index is added with the symbol ‘&‘ for relations
established with a previously occurring noun phrase:

(NP=yyyy&xxxx (...)):

(NP=0001      (D a) (N=1001/2/0001 noun)) 
(NP=5001&0001 (D an) (OTHER other) (N=1002/3/0001 noun)) 
→ the NP 'another noun' is related to NP 'a noun'

(ii) the related index is added with the symbol ‘#’ for relations
established with a previously occurring noun:

(NP=yyyy#xxxx (...)):

(NP=0001      (D a) (N=1001/2/0001 noun))
(NP=2002#0001 (D those) (N=2002/1/2002 nouns)) 
→ the NP 'those nouns' is related to N 'noun'

Annotation for number of occurrence

Number of occurrence annotation is in the format of a number
with three digits (000), appended with the symbol ‘=’,
after the Referent ID (i.e., after the additional annotation too,
where this applies):

(NP=xxxx=aaa (...)),
(NP=yyyy&xxxx=aaa (...)):

(NP=0001=001 (...))      → this is the first occurrence of ID 0001  
(NP=5000&0001=001 (...)) → this is the first occurrence of ID 5000&0001

Each combination of number of occurrence and Referent ID is unique.


0.2.2 Application of the indexes

The origin of the Referent ID index for each phrase will depend on
whether the phrase constitutes the first mention of a referent in the text,
or a further mention of a previously occurring referent.

Application of indexes for first mentions

Phrases that constitute the first mention of a referent will receive
their own index.

This will work in one of two ways, depending on the simple or complex
nature of the new reference:

(i) In simple referent relations, the index for new referents is
the number given to the contained noun in its first occurrence.
Such cases will be marked =001 for number of occurrence:

(NP=0001=001 (D a)(N=0001/1/0001 noun))  

(ii) In complex referent relations, the index for new referents
will be a new number, independent of the inventory of nouns.
Such cases will also be marked =001 for number of occurrence:

(NP=5000=001 (D an) (OUTRO other) (N=1002/3/0001 noun))  

For complex referent relations, the numbber of a related phrase
or the number of a related noun is linked as additional annotation,
as mentioned above (after ‘&’ or after ‘#’, respectively). So,

(NP=0001=001 (D a) (N=0001/1/0001 noun))
(NP=5000&0001=001 (D an) (OUTRO other) (N=1002/3/0001 noun))  

Application of indexes for further mentions

Phrases that constitute further mentions of a previously occurring referent
will inherit the index of the first occurrence of that previously mentioned referent (be them simple indexes, =xxxx, or complex indexes, =xxxx&yyyy; =xxxx#yyyy).

Such cases will be marked =002, =003, etc. for number of occurrence,
according to their position in the chain formed by all mentions to that referent:

(NP=0001=001 (D a) (N=0001/1/0001 noun))    
(NP=0001=002 (D This) (N=1001/2/0001 noun))  
(NP=0001=003 (D This) (ADJ mentioned) (N=1002/3/0001 noun))  

Schematic example of a complete chain

To illustrate with a complete schematic chain:

(NP=0001=001 (D a) (N=0001/1/0001 noun))    - 1st reference  
(NP=0001=002 (D This) (N=1001/2/0001 noun)) - 2nd reference
(NP=0001=003 (D This) (ADJ mentioned) (N=1002/3/0001 noun)) - 3rd reference

(NP=5000&0001=001 (D an) (OTHER other) (N=1003/4/0001 noun)) - 1st reference, complex
(NP=5000&0001=002 (D This) (ADJ mentioned) (N=1004/5/0001 noun)) - 2nd reference

(NP=2000#0001=001 (D those) (N=2000/1/2000 nouns)) 1st reference, complex


0.3 Some generalizations

A few generalizations can be made after the annotation of the pilot test concerning the patterns of phrases that received annotations as first referents (simple or complex) and as further mentions of previously occurring referents.

The internal structure of the NP as a whole is relevant for the interpretation of the referentiality; however, generalizations are given only with regard to the pre-nominal area of the phrases, i.e., regarding the constituents that precede the noun (such as determiners, adjectives, numerals), and not regarding the constituents that may follow it (such as prepositional phrases, relative clauses, etc).

The complete list below leads to further explanations and examples of each case.

Constructions that always appear as new referents

Noun phrases of the following type, and with the following internal structures, were found to always appear as new referents in the pilot text (including simple and complex new referents):

– NPs with an indefinite determiner and a noun: (NP (D-UM …) (N …))
– NPs with an indef. determiner, an adjective, a noun: (NP (D-UM ) (ADJ ) (N ))

– NPs with a definite determiner, no adjective, and no noun: (NP (D …))
– NPs with a definite determiner, and a clause: (NP (D …) (IP-INF …))

– NPs with OUTRO and a noun: (NP (OUTRO …) (N …))
– NPs with OUTRO, a definite determiner, a noun: (NP (D ) (OUTRO …) (N …))

– NPs with a quantifier and a noun: (NP (Q …) (N …))
– NPs with a quantifier, a definite determiner, a noun: (NP (Q …) (D …) (N …))
– NPs with a definite determiner, a quantifier, a noun: (NP (D …) (Q …) (N …))
– NPs with ‘cada’, an indefinite determiner, no noun: (NP (Q-G …) (D-UM …))

– NPs with a numeral and a noun: (NP (NUM …) (N …))
– NPs with a numeral, a definite determiner, a noun: (NP (D …) (NUM …) (N …))
– NPs with a numeral and no noun: (NP (NUM …))

– NPs with a possessive and a noun: (NP (PRO$ …) (N …))
– NPs with a possessive, a definite determiner, a noun: (NP (D ) (PRO$ …) (N …))
– NPs with a possessive, a definite determiner, and no noun: (NP (D ) (PRO$ …))

Constructions that never appear as new referents

Noun phrases of the following type, and with the following internal structures, were found never to appear as new referents in the pilot text:

– NPs with a definite determiner ‘este/a’ and a noun: (NP (D este/a) (N …))
– NPs with a definite determiner, an adjective, and no noun: (NP (D …) (ADJ …))

– NPs with OUTRO, a definite determiner, and no noun: (NP (D ) (OUTRO …))

– NPs with a demonstrative: (NP (DEM …))

– NPs with a strong pronoun: (NP (PRO …))
– NPs with a clitic pronoun: (NP (CL …))
– NPs with a *pro*: (NP *pro*)
– NPs with a relative pronoun: (WNP (WPRO …))
– NPs with a ‘se’ clitic: (NP-SE (SE …))

Constructions that appear as new referents
and as further mentions of given referents

Noun phrases of the following type, and with the following internal structures, were found to appear alternatively as new referents and as further mentions of given references in the pilot text:

– Bare noun phrases: (NP (N …))
– NPs with an indefinite determiner and no noun: (NP (D-UM …))
– NPs with a definite determiner, an adjective, a noun: (NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …))
– NPs with a definite determiner and a noun: (NP (D …) (N …))
– Phrases with OUTRO, no determiner, and no noun: (NP (OUTRO …))

A more detailed exposition of each case, with examples, is given below. The manual is ordered according to the main types of noun phrases, from bare noun phrases to pronouns. To see the phrases according to their reference pattern use the list above or the index here.


1. Bare noun phrases


(NP (N …))

Bare NPs appear both as new referents, and as further mentions of previously occurring phrases. They are marked accordingly in each case, as shown below.

  • Note: This difference may be directly derived from the index on the noun contained in the NP.

(See 4.1 below for specific markup pertaining compound nouns)

(A) New referents

Bare NPs containing a noun in its first occurrence are new referents. They are marked with the index of the contained noun, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[1]  'Bugios',
     (NP-ACC=1904=001 (N-P=1904/1/1904 Bugios)) :
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	    (NP-ACC=1904=001 (N-P=1904/1/1904 Bugios)
		             (QP *ICH*-3))
	    (HV-P há)
	    (PP (P n@)
	        (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))
	    (QP-3 (QP (Q-P muitos))
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		         (PP (P de)
			     (NP (Q-F-P muitas) (N-P castas)))))
	    (CP-ADV (C como)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
			    (ADVP (ADV já))
			    (NP-SE-1-2 (CL se))
			    (VB-P sabe)))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,23.359))
in
Bugios há na terra muitos e de muitas castas como já se sabe:
'Monkeys there are in the land many and of many castes as it is already known:'

where
(N=1904/1/1904 Bugios) is the 1st occurrence of the noun
[2]  'leitões',
     (NP-SBJ=1693=001 (N-P=1693/1/1693 leitões)),
((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (SR-P são)
	  (ADJP (ADV quase)
		(ADJ-P tamanhos)
		(CP-CMP (C como)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=1693=001 (N-P=1693/1/1693 leitões)))))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,21.303))
in
 Chamam-lhes Tatus,
 e são quase tamanhos como leitões:
 'They are called Tatus,
 and are almost as big as pigglets:'

where
(N-P=1693/1/1693 leitões) is the 1st occurrence of the noun

(B) Further mentions

Bare NPs containing a noun not on its first occurrence are further mentions of previously occurring phrases. They are marked with the number of the contained noun in its first occurrence, and further tagged for number of occurrence with =002, =003, etc., according to its place in the chain of references:

[3]  'bugios', 
    (NP-SBJ=1904=005 (N-P=3773/2/1904 bugios)):
((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (CP-ADV (C quando)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
			  (NP-1 (CL se))
			  (VB-P querem)
			  (IP-INF (NP-ACC *-1)
				  (VB ajuntar))))
	  (VB-D assobiam)
	  (CP-CMP (CP-CMP (C como)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N-P pássaros))))
		  (, ,)
		  (CONJP (CONJ ou)
			 (CP-CMP (C como)
				 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=1904=005 (N-P=3773/2/1904 bugios))))))
	  (, ,) ...)
(ID G_008,43.819))
in
e quando se querem ajuntar assobiam como pássaros, ou como bugios
'and when they want to reunite they whistle like birds, or like monkeys'

where
 (NP-SBJ=1904=005 bugios) is the fifth reference to
 (NP-SBJ=1904=001 Bugios)


2. Determined NPs

Determined NPs can be new referents or further mentions of previously occurring phrases. They are marked accordingly in each case, as shown below.


2.1 NPs with D-UM

NPs containing the indefinite determiners D-UM – (D-UM um), (D-UM uns); and (D-UM-F uma), (D-UM-F umas) can appear both as new referents and as further mentions of previously occurring phrases. This can be generalized from the internal structure of the phrase: noun phrases with determiners D-UM that include a noun and/or a modifier always appear as new referents, and noun phrases with determiners D-UM and no noun or modifier always appear as further mentions of preciously occurring referents. Each relevant case is shown below.


2.1.1 With nouns


(NP (D-UM …) (N …))

NPs containing an indefinite determiner, D-UM*, and a noun, only appear as new referents. They are marked in one of two ways, depending on the index on the noun they contain.

  1. NPs containing an indefinite determiner and a noun in its first occurrence are coded with the index of this contained noun, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[4]  'um arrecife ou baixo de pedras',
     (NP-SBJ=0667=001 (D-UM um) (N=0667/1/0667 arrecife) ou baixo de pedras):
((IP-MAT (NP-MSR (D-UM-F Uma)
		  (N légua)
		  (PP (PP (P d@)
			  (NP (D-F @a)
			      (N povoação)
			      (PP (P de)
				  (NP (NPR Olinda)))))
			   (P para)
		           (NP (D o) (NPR Sul))))
	  (ET-P está)
	  (NP-SBJ=0667=001 (D-UM um)
			   (N=0667/1/0667 arrecife)
			   (NP-PRN (CONJ ou)
				   (N baixo)
				   (PP (P de)
                                   (NP (N-P pedras))))
      (, ,) ...) ...)
(ID G_008,11.91))
in
Uma légua da povoação de Olinda para o Sul
está um arrecife ou baixo de pedras, que é o porto onde entram as embarcações.

um arrecife ou baixo de pedras
'a reef or bank of stones'

where
(N=0667/1/0667 arrecife) is the 1st occurrence of the noun
  1. NPs containing an indefinite determiner and a noun not in its first occurrence are coded with a new index. The index of the noun included in the NP is added to this primary index with a symbol ‘#’, and the compound index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[5]  'um arrecife',
     (NP-ACC=5113#0667=001 (D-UM um) (N=0802/2/0667 arrecife)):
(CP-REL (WPP-3 (P entre)
	       (NP (D-F-P as) (WPRO-P quais)))
	       (IP-SUB (PP *T*-3)
		       (NP-SE (CL se))
		       (VB-P mete)
		       (NP-SBJ   (D-UM um)
			         (N rio)
			 (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
				 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				         (VB-P faz)
					 (NP-ACC=5113#0667=001 (D-UM um) (N=0802/2/0667 arrecife))
					 (PP (P n@)
					     (NP (D-F @a) (N boca)))
					 (PP (P como)
				            (NP (N enseada)))))
                       (CP-REL (WADVP-2 (WADV onde))
					  (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-2)
						  (NP-SBJ (D-P os) (N-P navios))
						  (VB-P entram)))))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,11.113))
in
 entre as quais se mete um rio que faz um arrecife na boca como enseada por onde os navios entram
 'between which there puts itself a river that forms a reef at the entrance like a mouth by which the ship enter'
where
(NP-ACC=5113#0667=001 um arrecife na boca como enseada...) is a new referent, and
(N=0802/2/0667 arrecife) is the 2nd occurrence of the noun


(NP (D-UM …) (ADJ …) (N …))

NPs containing an indefinite determiner, D-UM*, an adjective, and a noun, always appear as new referents. They will be coded in one of two ways, depending on the nature of the index of the noun they include.

  1. NPs containing a determiner D-UM, an adjective, and a noun in its first occurrence, are coded with the index of the contained noun, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[6]  'um grande carneiro',
     (NP-ACC=2268=001 (D-UM um) (ADJ grande) (N=2268/1/2268 carneiro))
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (VB-P Chamam-)
	  (NP-3 (CL -se))
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-3)
		  (NP-ACC (N-P Emas)
			  (, ,)
			  (CP-REL (WNP-2 (D-F-P as) (WPRO-P quais))
				  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
					  (TR-R terão)
					  (NP-ACC (ADJ-R-F tanta)
						  (N carne)
						  (CP-CMP (C como)
							  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=2268=001 (D-UM um) (ADJ-G grande) (N=2268/1/2268 carneiro)))))))))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,26.462))
in
 Chamam-se Emas, as quais terão tanta carne como um grande carneiro
 'They are called Emas, which have as much meat as a big ram'
where
 (N=2268/1/2268 carneiro), first occurrence of the noun
  1. NPs containing an indefinite determiner, an adjective, and a noun not in its first occurrence are coded with a new index. The index of the noun included in the NP is added to this primary index with a symbol ‘#’, and the compound index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[7]  'um grande espaço',
     (NP-ACC=5905#1190=001 (D-UM um) (ADJ grande) (N=2710/6/1190 espaço))
( (IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (ADVP (ADV assim))
	  (ET-D esteve)
	  (CP-CMP (C como)
		  (IP-SUB (ADJP (VB-AN assombrado))))
	  (PP (P sem)
	      (IP-INF (VB falar)
		      (NP-ACC (N coisa) (Q-F alguma))
		      (PP (P por)
			  (NP=5905#1190=001 (D-UM um) (ADJ-G grande) (N=2710/6/1190 espaço)))))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,31.561))
in
 e assim esteve como assombrado sem falar coisa alguma por um grande espaço
 'and thus he was like haunted without speaking any thing for a large space ('period')'
where
 (NP=5905#1190 um grande espaço) is a new referent, and
 (N=2710/6/1190 espaço) is the sixth occurrence of the noun


2.1.2 Without nouns


(NP (D-UM …) (ADJ …))

NPs containing an indefinite determiner, D-UM*, an adjective, and no noun, always appear as new referents. The references are always complex, representing a particular case of a previously occurring referent. Such NPs are coded with a new index, and the index of the previously occurring related phrase is added to this primary index with a symbol &. The compound index is further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[8]  'uns pequenos como esmerilhões em sua quantidade',
     (NP-SBJ=5203&2046=001 (D-UM uns) (ADJP pequenos como esmerilhões em sua quantidade)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=2046=002 (D-P Os) (N-P=2076/2/2046 Gaviões))
	    (ADVP (ADV também))
	    (SR-P são)
	    (ADJP (Q muito)
		  (ADJ-P destros)
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		         (ADJX (ADJ-P forçosos))))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,25.403))

((IP-MAT-PRN (ADVP (ADV especialmente))
	      (NP-SBJ=5203&2046=001 (D-UM-P uns)
		                        (ADJP (ADJ-P pequenos)
			                (CP-CMP (C como)
				                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N-P esmerilhões))))
			                (PP (P em)
				            (NP (PRO$ sua) (N quantidade)))))
	      (NP-ACC (CL o))
	      (SR-P são)
	      (ADVP (ADV-R tanto)
		    (, ,)
		    (CP-DEG (C que)
			    (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
					    (VB-P remetem)
					    (PP (P a)
						(NP (D-UM-F uma) (N perdiz))))
				    (CONJP (CONJ e)
					   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
						   (NP-ACC (CL a))
						   (VB-P levam)
						   (PP (P n@)
						       (NP (D-F-P @as) (N-P unhas)))
						   (PP (P para)
						       (ADVP (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (WADV onde))
								     (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
									     (NP-SBJ *pro*)
									     (VB-P querem))))))))))
	      (. .))
(ID G_008,25.404))
in
 Os Gaviões também são muito destros e forçosos.
 Especialmente uns pequenos como esmerilhões em sua quantidade
 o são tanto, que (...)
 'The Hawks are also very able and strong.
 Particularly ones as small as merlins in their quantity 
 are quite so (...)'
where
(NP-SBJ=5203&2046=001 uns pequenos como esmerilhões...) is a new referent, related* to
(NP-SBJ=0246=002 Os Gaviões)
*i.e., 'uns pequenos' is a particular case in the class 'Os Gaviões'
[9]  'uns pequeninos',
     (NP-ACC=5465&1904=001 (D-UM-P uns) (ADJ-P pequeninos)), and
     'uns louros',
     (NP=5715&5465=001 (D-UM-P uns) (ADJ-P louros)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	    (NP-ACC=1904=001 (N-P=1904/1/1904 Bugios)
		             (QP *ICH*-3))
	    (HV-P há)
	    (PP (P n@)
	        (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))
	    (QP-3 (QP (Q-P muitos))
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		         (PP (P de)
			     (NP (Q-F-P muitas) (N-P castas)))))
	    (CP-ADV (C como)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
			    (ADVP (ADV já))
			    (NP-SE-1-2 (CL se))
			    (VB-P sabe)))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,23.359))

(...)

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (HV-P Há)
	  (ADVP (ADV também))
	  (NP-ACC=5465&1904=001 (D-UM-P uns)
		  (N pequeninos)
		  (CP-REL *ICH*-1))
	  (PP (P pel@)
	      (NP (D-F @a) (N costa)))
	  (PP (P de)
	      (NP (NUM-F duas)
		  (N-P castas)
		  (ADJP (Q pouco)
			(ADJ-R-G-P maiores)
			(CP-CMP (C que)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N-P doninhas)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-1 (WPP-2 (P a)
			   (NP (WPRO que)))
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
			    (ADVP (ADV comumente))
			    (VB-P chamam)
			    (IP-SMC (PP-SBJ *T*-2)
				    (NP-ACC (NPR-P Sagüis)))))
	  (, ,))
(ID G_008,23.369))

((IP-MAT (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ *exp*)
		      (VB-P convém)
		      (PP (P a)
			  (IP-INF (VB saber))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (HV-P há)
	  (IP-SMC (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ=5466&5465=001 (D-UM-P uns))
			  (ADJP (ADJ-P louros)))
		  (, ,)
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
			 (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (OUTRO-P outros))
				 (ADJP (ADJ-P pardos)))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,23.370))
in
Bugios há na terra muitos e de muitas castas como já se sabe ...
Há uns ruivos não muito grandes que derramam de si um cheiro muito suave ...
Outros há perto maiores que estes , que tem barba  como homem ...
Há também uns pequeninos pela costa de duas castas pouco maiores que doninhas,
a que comumente chamam  Sagüis , convém a saber , há uns louros, e outros pardos.

 Há também uns pequeninos pela costa de duas castas...
 'There are also some tiny around the cost of two kinds...'

 há uns louros
 'There are some blond'

where
(NP-ACC=5465&1904=001 uns pequeninos) is a new referent, related* to
(NP-ACC=1904=001 Bugios), 
*i.e., 'uns pequeninos' is a particular case in the class 'Bugios';
(NP-SBJ=5466&5465=001 uns louros) is a new referent, related* to
(NP-ACC=5465&1904=001 uns pequeninos), 
*i.e., 'uns louros' is a particular case in the class 'uns pequeninos';

- Indexes may compound, forming
  (NP-SBJ=5466&5465&1904=001 uns louros), i.e., 'uns (bugios) (pequeninos) louros'


(NP (D-UM …))

NPs containing an indefinite determiner, D-UM*, no noun, and no other modifiers, can be either new referents or further mentions of previously occurring phrases. They are coded accordingly in each case, as shown below.

  • Note: This difference is distinguished by interpretation only.

(A) New referents

NPs containing an indefinite determiner, no noun, and no other modifiers, interpreted as new referents, are treated as complex references. Such NPs are coded with a new index, and the index of the phrase related to this NP is then added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[10] 'uma',
     (NP-SBJ-2=5020&1193 (D-UM-F uma)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (HV-P Há)
	  (ADVP (ADV todavia))
	  (NP-ACC=1993=002 (N=1198/2/1193 farinha)
		           (PP (P de)
		           (NP (NUM-F duas) (N-P maneiras))))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,16.184))

((IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ-2=5020&1193=001 (D-UM-F uma))
		    (NP-2 (CL se))
		    (VB-P chama)
		    (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-2)
			    (PP (P de)
				(NP (N guerra)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		 (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (OUTRO-F outra))
			   (ADJP (ADJ-F fresca))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,16.185))
in
 Há todavia farinha de duas maneiras:
 uma se chama de guerra, e outra fresca.
 'There is however flour of two kinds:
 one is called of war, the other fresh'
where
 (NP-SBJ-2=5020&1993=001 uma) is new referent, related* to
 (NP-ACC=1993=002 farinha de duas maneiras)
*i.e., 'uma' is one of the two components of the group 'farinha de duas maneiras'

(B) Further mentions

NPs containing an indefinite determiner and no noun, interpreted as further mentions of a previously occurring phrase, are marked with the index of this previously mentioned phrase, and further tagged for number of occurrence with =002, =003, etc., according to its place in the chain of references:

[11] 'uns',
     (NX=5466&5465=007 uns):
((IP-MAT (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ *exp*)
		      (VB-P convém)
		      (PP (P a)
			  (IP-INF (VB saber))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (HV-P há)
	  (IP-SMC (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ=5466&5465=001 (D-UM-P uns))
			  (ADJP (ADJ-P louros)))
		  (, ,)
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
			 (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (OUTRO-P outros))
				 (ADJP (ADJ-P pardos)))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,23.370))

(...)

((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (ADVP (ADV assim))
	  (NP-SBJ=6098 (NX=5466&5465=007 (D-UM-P uns))
				   (CP-CMP (C como)
					   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (OUTRO-P outros)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (SR-P são)
	  (ADJP (ADV tão)
		(ADJ-P mimosos)
		(CONJP (CONJ e)
		       (ADJX (ADJ-P delicados)
			     (PP (P de)
				 (NP (PRO$ sua) (N natureza)))))
		(, ,)
		(CP-DEG (C que) ...))
   )
 (ID G_008,23.377))
in
Há também uns pequeninos pela costa de duas castas pouco maiores que doninhas, 
a que comumente chamam  Sagüis , convém a saber , há uns louros, e outros pardos. 
Os louros têm um cabelo muito fino, e na semelhança do vulto e feição do corpo quase se querem parecer com leão :
são muito formosos , e não os há senão no Rio de Janeiro . 
Os pardos se acham daí para o Norte em todas as mais capitanias. 
Também são muito aprazíveis : mas não tão alegres à vista como estes . 
E assim uns como outros, são tão mimosos e delicados de sua natureza, 
que como os tiram da pátria e os embarcam para este Reino, 
tanto que chegam a outros ares mais frios quase todos morrem no mar, 
e não escapa senão algum de grande maravilha . 

 E assim uns como outros
 'And so ones as others'

where
(NP=5466&5465=007 uns) is the seventh reference to 
(NP-ACC=5466&5465=001 uns louros). 


2.2 NPs with D

NPs containing a definite determiner, D*, and a noun, can appear as new referents or as further mentions of previously occurring phrases. This depends chiefly on the internal structure of the NP. Each relevant internal structure is described below.


2.2.1 With expressed nouns


(NP (D o/a) (N …))

NPs containing an indefinite determiner ‘D’ – ‘o’, ‘os’ (or ‘D-F’ a, as) – and a noun can appear as new referents or as further mentions of previously occurring phrases. They are coded accordingly in each case, as shown below.

  • Note: This distinction may be directly derived from on the index on the noun contained in the NP.

(A) New referents

NPs containing ‘O(s)’, ‘A(s)’ determiners and a noun in its first occurrence are always new referents. They are marked with the same index as the noun they contain, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[12] 'As fontes que há na terra',
     (NP-SBJ=0333=001 (D-F-P As) (N-P=0333/1/0333 fontes) (CP-REL que há na terra)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=0333=001 (D-F-P As)
		             (N-P=0333/1/0333 fontes)
		             (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			             (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
				             (NP-SBJ *exp*)
				             (HV-P há)
				             (PP (P n@)
				                 (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))))
		                             (CP-REL *ICH*-3))
	  (, ,)
	  (SR-P são)
	  (ADJP (ADJ-F-P infinitas))
	  (, ,) ...)
(ID G_008,9.38))
in
 As fontes que há na terra, são infinitas ... 
 'The springs that are in the land, are infinite...'
where
 (NP-SBJ=0333=001 As fontes que há na terra) is a new referent, and
 (N-P=0333/1/0333 fontes) is the 1st occurrence of the noun

(B) Further mentions

NPs containing ‘O(s)’, ‘A(s)’ determiners and a noun not in its first occurrence are always further mentions of previously occurring phrases. They are marked with the index of that previously occurring phrase, and further sub-tagged for number of occurrence with =002, =003, etc., acording to its place in the chain of references:

[13] 'a frota', 
     (NP-SBJ=0005=008 (D-F a) (N=0029/8/0005 frota)):
((IP-MAT (IP-GER (VB-G REINANDO)
		  (NP-SBJ (D aquele)
			  (ADJP (Q muito)
				(ADJ católico)
				(CONJP (CONJ e)
				       (ADJX (ADJ-S sereníssimo))))
			  (NPR Príncipe)
			  (NP-PRN (NPR el-Rei) (NPR Dom) (NPR MANUEL))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D fez-)
	  (NP-SE-4 (CL -se))
	  (NP-SBJ-4=0005=001 (D-UM-F uma)
		             (N=0005/1/0005 frota)
		             (PP (P para)
			         (NP (D-F a) (NPR Índia)))
		    (CP-REL ...))
	  (. :) ...)
(ID G_008,6.1)) 

(...)

((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (ADVP (ADV depois)
		(PP (P de)
		    (IP-INF (HV haver)
			    (NP-ACC (N bonança)))))
	  (IP-PPL (VB-AN-F junta)
		  (NP-ADV (OUTRO-F outra) (N vez))
		  (NP-SBJ=0005=008 (D-F a) (N=0029/8/0005 frota)))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D empegaram-)
	  (NP-SE (CL -se))
	  (PP (P a@)
	      (NP (D @o) (N mar)))
	  (, ,)
	  (...)
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,6.3))
in
 E depois de haver bonança, junta outra vez a frota, empegaram-se ao mar...
 'And after there was good weather, gathered again the fleet, they set to sea...'
where
 (NP-SBJ=0005=008 a frota) is the 8th reference to
 (NP-SBJ-4=0005=001 uma frota para a Índia de que ia por capitão mór Pedro Álvares Cabral ...)


(NP (D Este/a) (N …))

NPs containing a determiner ‘Este(s)’, ‘Esta(s)’ are always mentions of previously occurring phrases. They are marked in one of two ways, depending on the index on the noun they contain.

  1. NPs containing a determiner ‘Este(s)’, ‘Esta(s)’ normally contain a noun not in its first occurrence. In such cases, the NPs are coded with the index of the previously occurring phrase it makes reference to, and further tagged with =002, =003, etc., according to its position in the chain of referents:
[14] 'Estas aves',
     (NP-SBJ=5339&0243=002 (D-F-P Estas) (N-P=2244/9/0243 aves)):
((IP-MAT-4 (NP-SBJ-1=5339&0243=001 (D-F-P Umas)
		               (ADJ-F-P certas)
		               (N-P=2224/8/0243 aves)
		               (ADJP *ICH*-5)
		               (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
	    (NP-SE-1 (CL se))
	    (VB-P acham)
	    (ADVP (ADV também))
	    (PP (P n@)
		(NP (D-F @a)
		    (N capitania)
		    (PP (P de)
			(NP (NPR Pernambuco)))))
	    (...)
	    (. .))
  (ID G_008,26.456))

((IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ=5339&0243=002 (D-F-P Estas) (N-P=2244/9/0243 aves))
		    (TR-P tem)
		    (NP-ACC (D o)
			    (N bico)
			    (CP-CMP (C como)
				    (IP-SUB (PP (P de)
						(NP (NPR Águia)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		 (IP-MAT-1 (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D-P os) (N-P pés))
				   (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ-P grossos))
					 (CONJP (CONJ e)
						(ADJP (Q muito) (ADJ-P compridos)))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,26.457))
in
 Umas certas aves se acham também na capitania de Pernambuco...
 Estas aves tem o bico como de Águia, e os pés grossos e muito compridos.
'Some certain birds are found also in the captainship of Pernambuco...'
'Those birds have beaks like Eagles', and large and very long feet.' 
where
 (NP-SBJ=5339&0243=002 Estas aves) is the second reference to 
 (NP-SBJ-1=5339&0243=001 Umas certas aves)
  1. Some NPs containing a determiner ‘Este(s)’, ‘Esta(s)’ may contain a noun in its first occurrence. Also in those cases, the phrase is a mention of a previously occurring phrase – but that previous phrase contains a different noun (in most cases, the singular version of a plural noun in the referred phrase). Such NPs are coded with a compound index: the primary index is the index of the phrase to which the NP refers to. The index of the noun contained in the NP is added to this primary index, by a symbol ‘#’ (‘word level relation’). The compound index is sub-tagged with =002, =003, etc., according to its position in the chain of referents.
[15] 'Este rio',
     (NP-SBJ=5030&0336#0362=002 (D Este) (N=0362/1/0362 rio):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D-F-P As)
		  (N-P fontes)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
				  (NP-SBJ *exp*)
				  (HV-P há)
				  (PP (P n@)
				      (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))))
		  (CP-REL *ICH*-3))
	  (, ,)
	  (SR-P são)
	  (ADJP (ADJ-F-P infinitas))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-3 (WNP-2 (WPRO$ cujas) (N-P águas))
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
			    (VB-P fazem)
			    (IP-INF (VB crescer)
				    (PP-SBJ (P a)
					    (NP=0336=001 (Q-P muitos)
						         (ADJP (CONJ e) (Q muito) (ADJ-G-P grandes))
						         (N-P=0336/1/0336 rios)
						         (CP-REL ...)
					     )))))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,9.38))

(...)

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5030&0336=001 (D-UM Um)
		               (PP (P d@)
		                   (NP (D-P @os)
			               (ADJP (ADV-R mais)
				              (ADJ-P famosos)
				              (CONJP (CONJ e)
				                     (ADJX (ADJ-G-P principais))))
			               (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
				               (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
					               (NP-SBJ *exp*)
					               (HV-P há)
					               (PP (P n@)
					                   (NP (D-F-P @estas) (N-P partes))))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (SR-P é)
	  (NP-ACC (D o)
		  (NPR Amazonas)
		  (, ,)
		  (...))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,9.40))
	     
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5030&0336#0362=002 (D Este) (N=0362/1/0362 rio))
	  (TR-P tem)
	  (PP (P n@)
	      (NP (D-F @a) (N entrada)))
	  (NP-ACC (Q-F-P muitas)
		  (N-P ilhas)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (NP-ACC (CL o))
				  (VB-P dividem)
				  (PP (P em)
				      (NP (ADJ-F-P diversas) (N-P partes))))))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,9.41))
in
As fontes que há na terra, são infinitas, cujas águas fazem crescer 
a muitos e muito grandes rios que por esta costa, assim da banda do Norte, 
como do Oriente entram no mar Oceano. Alguns deles nascem no interior do Sertão, 
os quais vem por longas e tortuosas vias a buscar o mesmo Oceano: 
onde suas correntes fazem afastar as marinhas águas por força, 
e entram nele com tanto ímpeto, que com muita dificuldade e perigo 
se pode por eles navegar. 
Um dos mais famosos e principais que há nestas partes, é o Amazonas, 
o qual sai ao Norte meio grau da equinocial para o Sul, 
e tem trinta léguas de boca pouco mais ou menos. 
Este rio tem na entrada muitas ilhas que o dividem em diversas partes, 
e nasce de uma lagoa que está cem léguas do mar do Sul 
ao pé de umas serras do Quito província do Peru ...

  Um dos mais famosos e principais que há nestas partes, é o Amazonas ...
  'One of the most famous and principal that there are in these parts, is the Amazon ...'

  Este rio tem na entrada muitas ilhas...' 
  'This river has at the entry many islands...'

where 
(NP-SBJ=5030&0336=002 Este rio) is the second reference to
(NP-SBJ=5030&0336=001 um dos mais famosos e principais que há nestas partes)

and
(NP-SBJ=5030&0336=002 Este rio) contains a noun not contained in the related phase, 'rio', (N=0362/1/0362 rio).

notice that
(NP-SBJ=5030&0336=001 um dos mais famosos e principais que há nestas partes) is, in its turn, related to
(NP=0336=001 muitos e muitos grandes rios ...), containing a noun 'rios', (N-P=0336/1/0336 rios), the plural of 'rio', (N=0362/1/0362 rio).

Additional annotation with '#', 
connecting the plural and singular forms 'rivers' (0336) and 'rio' (0362):

(NP-SBJ=5030&0336#0362=002 Este rio)
[16] 'Este óleo',
     (NP-SBJ-1=1439#1245=008 (D Este) (N=1245/1/1245 óleo)), and
     'Este licor precioso',
     (NP-ACC=1439#143=012 (D este) (N=1436/1/1436 licor) (ADJ precioso)):
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (NP-ACC (D-UM Um)
		  (ADJ certo)
		  (N gênero)
		  (PP (P de)
		      (NP (N-P árvores)))
		  (CP-REL *ICH*-4)
		  (CP-REL *ICH*-5))
	  (HV-P há)
	  (ADVP (ADV também))
	  (PP (P pel@)
	      (NP (D @o)
		  (N mato)
		  (ADVP (ADV dentro))))
	  (PP (P n@)
	      (NP (D-F @a)
		  (N capitania)
		  (PP (P de)
		      (NP (NPR Paranambuco)))))
	  (CP-REL-4 (WPP-3 (P a)
			   (NP (WPRO que)))
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
			    (VB-P chamam)
			    (IP-SMC (PP-SBJ *T*-3)
				    (NP-ACC (N-P Copahíbas)))))
	  (CP-REL-5 (WNP-2 (P de)
			   (WNP (WPRO que)))
		    (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
			    (NP-SE-6 (CL se))
			    (VB-P tira)
			    (NP-SBJ-6=1439=001 (N=1439/1/1439 bálsamo)
				               (ADJP (ADJP (Q muito) (ADJ salutífero))
					             (CONJP (CONJ e)
						            (ADJP (ADJ proveitoso)
							          (PP (P em)
							              (NP (N extremo)))))))
			    (PP (P para)
				(NP (N-P enfermidades)
				    (PP (P de)
					(NP (Q-F-P muitas) (N-P maneiras)))))))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,17.246))

(...)

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1=1439#1245=012 (D Este) (N=1245/1/1245 óleo))
	  (NEG não)
	  (NP-SE-1 (CL se))
	  (VB-P acha)
	  (NP-ADV (Q todo) (N ano))
	  (ADVP (ADV perfeitamente))
	  (PP (P n@)
	      (NP (D-F-P @estas) (N-P árvores)))
	  (, ,))
(ID G_008,17.252))

and

((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (CP-ADV (C quando)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
			  (VB-P querem)
			  (IP-INF (VB tirá-)
				  (NP-ACC (CL -lo)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-P dão)
	  (NP-ACC (ADJ-P certos)
		  (N-P golpes)
		  (CONJP (CONJ ou)
			 (NX (N-P furos)))
		  (CP-REL *ICH*-1))
	  (PP (P n@)
	      (NP (D @o)
		  (N tronco)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP (PRO @elas)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-1 (WPP-2 (P pel@)
			   (NP (D-P @os) (WPRO-P quais)))
		    (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
			    (NP-SBJ *pro*)
			    (NP-ADV (Q pouco)
				    (PP (P a)
					(NP (Q pouco))))
			    (ET-P estão)
			    (VB-G estilando)
			    (PP (P d@)
				(NP (D @o) (N âmago)))
			    (NP-ACC=1439#1463=012 (D este) (N=1463/1/1463 licor) (ADJ precioso))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,17.254))
in
Um certo gênero de árvores há também pelo mato dentro na capitania de Paranambuco a que chamam Copahíbas 
de que se tira bálsamo muito salutífero e proveitoso em extremo para enfermidades de muitas maneiras,  
principalmente nas que procedem de frialdade causa grandes efeitos 
e tira todas as dores por graves que sejam em muito breve espaço. 
Para feridas ou quaisquer outras chagas, tem a mesma virtude: 
as quais tanto que com ele lhe acodem, saram muito depressa , 
e tira os sinais de maneira, que de maravilha se enxerga onde estiveram, 
e nisto faz vantagem a todas as outras medicinas.
Este óleo não se acha todo ano perfeitamente nestas árvores, 
nem procuram ir buscá-lo , senão no estio, que é o tempo em que assinaladamente o criam .  
E quando querem tirá-lo, dão certos golpes ou furos no tronco delas, 
pelos quais pouco a pouco estão estilando do âmago 
este licor precioso...

 Um certo gênero de árvores há também pelo mato dentro na capitania de Paranambuco 
 a que chamam Copahíbas de que se tira bálsamo muito salutífero e proveitoso em extremo para enfermidades de muitas maneiras,
 'A certain genre of trees are also in the bush of the capitany of Paranambuco 
 which is called Copahíbas, of which it is extracted very wholesome and extremely useful balm ...'

 Este óleo não se acha todo ano perfeitamente nestas árvores
 'This oil is not found all year round perfectly on these trees....' 

 E quando querem tirá-lo, dão certos golpes ou furos no tronco delas ,
 pelos quais pouco a pouco estão estilando do âmago este licor precioso...
 'And when they want to take it, they give certain blows or holes into their branches,
 of the heart of which they little by little extract this precious liquor...'

where 
 (NP-SBJ-1=1439=008 Este óleo) and
 (NP-ACC=1439=012 este licor precioso) make reference to
 (NP-SBJ-6=1439=001 bálsamo muito salutífero e proveitoso em extremo...)
and
 (NP-SBJ-1=1439=008 Este óleo) contains a noun 
 (N=1245/1/1245 óleo), not contained in the related phrase;
 (NP-ACC=1439=012 este licor precioso) contains a noun 
 (N=1463/1/1463 licor), not contained in the related phrase. 

Additional annotation with '#', 
connecting the each of the nouns 'óleo' (0457) and 'licor' (0457) to 'bálsamo' (0581): 
 (NP-SBJ-6=1439=001 bálsamo muito salutífero e proveitoso em extremo...) 
 (NP-SBJ-1=1439#1245=008 Este óleo) 
 (NP-ACC=1439#1463=012 este licor precioso)


(NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …))

Determined NPs with the internal order determiner, adjective, noun, can be first references or further mentions of previously mentioned referents, depending on the adjectives involved.

Three relevant groups of adjectives were observed in this regard: the adjectives ‘mesmo/a’ and ‘tal’ (which always involve further mentions); the adjectives ‘primeiro/a’, ‘segundo/a’, etc. (which always involve complex new referents); and all the remaining adjectives (which always involve new referents). The patterns for each group are specified below.


(NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …)), with ‘mesmo/a’, tal’

NPs containing a definite determiner, an adjective ‘mesmo’ (‘same’) or ‘tal’ (‘such’), and a noun, always appear as further mentions of previously occurring phrases (for phrases with other adejectives preciding the noun, see below).

Such NPs are marked with the same number as that previously occurring phrase, and further sub-tagged for number of occurrence with =002, =003, etc., according to their place in the chain of references:

[17] 'as tais castanhas',
     (NP-SBJ=1298=002 (D-F-P as) (ADJ-R-G-P tais) (N-P=1305/2/1298 castanhas)), and
     'as mesmas castanhas',
     (NP-SBJ=1298=002 (D-F as) (ADJ-F-P mesmas) (N-P=1307/3/1298 castanhas):
((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (ET-P estão)
	  (ADJP (ADJ-P cheios)
		(PP (P de)
		    (NP=1298=001 (D-UM-F-P umas)
			(N-P=1298/1/1298 castanhas)
			(ADJP (ADJP (Q muito) (ADJ-G-P doces))
			      (CONJP (CONJ e)
				     (ADJP (ADJ-F-P saborosas)
					   (PP (P em)
					       (NP (N extremo)))))))))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,17.216))

(...)

((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (ADVP (ADV-R tanto)
		(CP-ADV (C que)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=1298=002 (D-F-P as) (ADJ-R-G-P tais) (N-P=1305/2/1298 castanhas))
				         (SR-P são)
				         (ADJP (ADJ-F-P maduras)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-P caem)
	  (NP-SBJ (D-F-P estas) (N-P sapadoiras))
	  (, ,))
(ID G_008,17.218))

((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (PP (P d@)
	      (ADVP (ADV @ali)))
	  (VB-P começam)
	  (NP-SBJ=1298=003 (D-F-P as) (ADJ-F-P mesmas) (N-P=1307/3/1298 castanhas))
	  (ADVP (ADV também))
	  (PP (P a)
	      (IP-INF (VB cair)
		      (NP-ADV (Q pouco)
			      (PP (P a)
				  (NP (Q pouco))))
		      (PP (P até)
			  (IP-INF (NEG não)
				  (VB ficar)
				  (Q-NEG-F nenhuma)
				  (ADVP (ADV dentro)
					(PP (P d@)
					    (NP (D-P @os) (N-P vasos))))))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,17.219))
in
Umas árvores há também nestas partes muito altas a que chamam Sapucaias :
nas quais se criam uns vasos tamanhos como grandes cocos, quase da feição de jarras da Índia .
Estes vasos são muito duros em grande maneira,
e estão cheios de umas castanhas muito doces e saborosas em extremo:
e tem as bocas para baixo cobertas com umas sapadoiras, que parece realmente não serem 
assim criadas da natureza, senão feitas por artifício de indústria humana.
E tanto que as tais castanhas são maduras, caem estas sapadoiras,
e dali começam as mesmas castanhas também a cair pouco a pouco até não ficar nenhuma dentro dos vasos.

 e estão cheios de umas castanhas muito doces e saborosas em extremo:
 'and are filled with some nuts very sweet and flavourful in extreme:'

 E tanto que as tais castanhas são maduras, caem essas sapadoiras,
 'And as soon as such nuts are ripe, those calabashes fall,'

 e dali começam as mesmas castanhas também a cair ...
 'and thereof start the same nuts to fall too...'

where	
 (NP-SBJ=1298=002 as tais castanhas), 
 (NP-SBJ=1298=003 as mesmas castanhas) are the second and third references to
 (NP=1298=001 umas castanhas muito doces...)
and
 (N-P=1298/1/1298 castanhas), in (NP=1298=001 ...), 1st occurrence of the noun;
 (N-P=1305/2/1298 castanhas), in (NP-SBJ=1298=002 ...), 2nd occurrence of the noun;
 (N-P=1307/3/1298 castanhas), in (NP-SBJ=1298=003 ...), 3rd occurrence of the noun.


(NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …)), with ‘primeiro/a’, ‘segundo/a’, etc.

NPs containing a definite determiner, an adjective ‘primeiro/a’ (‘first’), ‘segundo/a’ (‘second’), ‘terceiro/a’ (‘third’), etc. , and a noun, always appear as new referents. In most cases, the new reference is complex (i.e., they establish a relation with a previously occurring phrase, representing particular instances in a group; but see the exceptional case in example [21] below). Such NPs are marked with a new index, linked to the number of the related phrase by the symbol ‘&’, and sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[18] 'A segunda capitania',
     (NP-SBJ-3=5072&7018=001 (D-F A) (ADJ-F segunda) (N=0621/2/0608 capitania)),      and
     'A terceira capitania',
     (NP-SBJ=5083&7018=001 (D-F A) (ADJ-F terceira) (N=0676/3/0608 capitania)):
((IP-MAT (TR TEM)
	  (NP-SBJ (D-F esta) (N província))
	  (ADVP (ADV assim)
		(CP-ADV (C como)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
				(VB-P vai)
				(ADJP (VB-AN-F lançada)
				      (PP (PP (P d@)
					      (NP (D-F @a) (N linha) (ADJ-G Equinocial)))
					  (P para)
					  (NP (D o) (NPR Sul)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-ACC=7018&0112=001 (NUM oito)
		                (N-P=0508/2/0112 capitanias)
		                (ADJP (VB-AN-F-P povoadas)
			              (PP (P de)
			                  (NP (NPR-P Portugueses))))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL ... ))
	  (. :))
  (ID G_008,10.68))

(...)

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-3=5062&7018=001 (D-F A)
		                  (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ-F primeira))
			                (CONJP (CONJ e)
				               (ADJP (ADV-R mais) (ADJ-F antiga))))
		                  (CP-REL *ICH*-4))
	  (NP-3 (CL se))
	  (VB-P chama)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-3)
		  (NP-ACC (NPR Tamaracá)))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-4 ... )
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,11.78))

(...)

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-3=5072&7018=001 (D-F A)
		                    (ADJ-F segunda)
		                    (N=0621/2/0608 capitania)
		                    (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				                    (PP (P a)
					                (ADVP (ADV diante)))
				                    (NP-SE (CL se))
				                    (VB-P segue)))
		                    (CP-REL *ICH*-4))
	     (NP-3 (CL se))
	     (VB-P chama)
	     (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-3)
		     (NP-ACC (NPR Paranambuco)))
	     (. :) ...)
(ID G_008,11.84))
...
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5083&7018=001 (D-F A)
				(ADJ-F terceira)
				(N=0676/3/0608 capitania)
				(CP-REL (WNP-1  (WPRO que))
						(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
							(ADVP (ADV adiante))
							(NP-SE (CL se))
							(VB-P segue))))
	  (, ,)
	  (SR-P é)
	  (NP-ACC (D-F a)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP (D-F @a)
			  (NPR Bahia)
			  (PP (P de)
			      (NP (Q-P todos) (D-P os) (NPR-P Santos)))
			  (, ,)
			  (NP-PRN (N terra)
				  (PP (P d@)
				      (NP (NPRi @el-Rei)
					  (NP-PRN (PRO$ nosso) (N senhor)))))))
        (. :) ...))
(ID G_008,11.93))
in
TEM esta província assim como vai lançada da linha Equinocial para o Sul, oito capitanias povoadas de Portugueses ...
A primeira e mais antiga se chama Tamaracá, a qual tomou este nome de uma ilha pequena, onde sua povoação está situada . ...
Desta ilha para o Norte, tem esta capitania terras muito largas e viçosas ...
A segunda capitania que a diante se segue se chama Paranambuco: ...
A terceira capitania que adiante se segue , é a da Bahia de todos os Santos , terra del-Rei nosso senhor: ...

 ... oito capitanias povoadas de Portugueses ...
 '... eight capitainships peopled by Portuguese ...'

 A primeira e mais antiga se chama Tamaracá, ...
 'The first and most ancient is called Tamaracá, ...'

 A segunda capitania que a diante se segue se chama Paranambuco: ...
 'The second captainship that follows ahead is called Paranambuco: ...'

 A terceira capitania que adiante se segue , é a da Bahia de todos os Santos, terra del-Rei nosso senhor
 'The third captainship that follows ahead, is of the Bahia de Todos os Santos, land of el-Rei our lord'

where
 (NP-SBJ-3=5072&7018=001 A segunda capitania) is a new referent, related to
 (NP-ACC=7018&0112=001 oito capitanias povoadas de Portugueses),
and
 (NP-SBJ=5083&7018=001 A terceira capitania) is a new referent, related to
 (NP-ACC=7018&0112=001 oito capitanias povoadas de Portugueses),
 
even though 
 (N=0621/2/0608 capitania) is the 2nd occurrence of the noun
 (N=0676/3/0608 capitania) is the 3rd occurrence of the noun

Indexes may compound, forming
 (NP-SBJ-3=5072&7018&0112=001 A segunda capitania) and
 (NP-SBJ=5083&7018&0112=001 A terceira capitania)

In this particular case, additional annotation with '#' may apply (to the compounded index), 
connecting the plural and singular versions of the nouns 'capitanias' (0112) and 'capitania' (0608):
 (NP-SBJ-3=5072&7018&0112#0608<span style="color: #999999;"=001 A segunda capitania) and
 (NP-SBJ=5083&7018&0112#0608<span style="color: #999999;"=001 A terceira capitania)


(NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …)), with most adjectives

Determined NPs with most adjectives preceding the nouns (i.e., any adjective but ‘mesmo’ (‘same’) or ‘tal’ (‘such’) – see further above, or ‘primeiro/a’, ‘segundo/a’ etc. – see above ), appear as new referents. They are coded in one of two ways, depending on the index on the noun they contain.

  1. NPs with a definite determiner, most adjectives, and a noun in its first occurrence, are coded with the index of this contained noun, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[19] 'aquela inimiga semente',
     (NP=3645=001 (D-F aquela) (ADJ-F inimiga) (N=3645/1/3645 semente))
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (CONJ-NEG nem)
	  (VB-P crêem)
	  (CP-THT (C que)
		  (IP-SUB (NP=3645=001 (D-F aquela) (ADJ-F inimiga) (N=3645/1/3645 semente))
			  (VB-P pode)
			  (IP-INF (TR ter)
				  (NP-ACC (N mistura))
				  (PP (P com)
				      (NP (PRO$ seu) (N sangue))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,42.790))
in
E se a mulher que foi do cativo acerta de ficar prenhe,
aquela criança que pare, depois de criada, matam-na e comem-na
sem haver entre eles pessoa alguma que se compadeça de tão injusta morte.
Antes seus próprios avós (a quem mais devia chegar esta mágoa ) são aqueles
que com maior gosto o ajudam a comer, e dizem que como filho de seu pai se vingam dele :
tendo para si que em tal caso não toma esta criatura nada da mãe ,
nem crêem que aquela inimiga semente pode ter mistura com seu sangue . 

  nem crêem que aquela inimiga semente pode ter mistura com seu sangue
  'nor (do they) believe that that inimical seed may have mixture with their blood' 
where
 (NP=3645=001 aquela inimiga semente) is a new referent, and
 (N=3645/1/3645 semente) is the first occurrence of the noun
  1. NPs with a definite determiner, most adjectives, and a noun not in its first occurrence, are marked with a new index, linked to the number of the previously mentioned noun by the symbol ‘#’ (for ‘relation with noun’), and sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[20] 'o bom sucesso que o tempo lhes prometia',
     (NP-ACC=5910#2588=001 (D o) (ADJ bom) (N=3252/2/2588 sucesso) (CP-REL que o tempo lhes prometia))
( (...)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	(VB-D fugiram)
	(PP (P sem)
	    (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *pro*)
		    (VB-F esperarem)
		    (NP-ACC=5910#2588=001 (D o)
			                  (ADJ bom)
			                  (N=3252/2/2588 sucesso)
			                  (CP-REL (WNP-3 (WPRO que))
				                  (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-3)
					                  (NP-SBJ (D o) (N tempo))
					                  (NP-DAT (CL lhes))
					                  (VB-D prometia))))))

  )
  (...)
  (ID G_008,36.707))
in
Assim que com qualquer abusam destas a todo tempo se abalam muito facilmente,
ainda que estejam muito perto de alcançar vitória : porque já aconteceu terem uma aldeia quase rendida,
e por um papagaio que havia nela falar umas certas palavras que lhe eles tinham ensinado,
levantaram o cerco e fugiram sem esperarem o bom sucesso que o tempo lhes prometia,
crendo sem dúvida que se assim o não fizeram , morreram todos a mão de seus inimigos .

  fugiram sem esperarem o bom sucesso que o tempo lhes prometia
  '(*pro*) ran away without waiting for the good outcome that the weather promised to them'
  
where
(NP-ACC=5910#2588=001 o bom sucesso que o tempo lhes prometia) is a new referent, and
(N=3252/2/2588 sucesso) is the second occurrence of the noun
  • Note: the example below represents a case where an adjective ‘segunda’ (‘second’) was not marked as a complex new referent, but treated in the same way as most adjectives (since there was no previous phrase in the text to which this phrase could be linked to):
[21] 'a segunda navegação que fizeram os Portugueses para estas partes do oriente',
     (NP-ACC=0011=001 (D-F a) (ADJ-F segunda) (N=0011/1/0011 navegação) (CP-REL que fizeram os Portugueses para estas partes do oriente)):
((IP-MAT (IP-GER (VB-G REINANDO)
		  (NP-SBJ (D aquele)
			  (ADJP (Q muito)
				(ADJ católico)
				(CONJP (CONJ e)
				       (ADJX (ADJ-S sereníssimo))))
			  (NPR Príncipe)
			  (NP-PRN (NPR el-Rei) (NPR Dom) (NPR MANUEL))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D fez-)
	  (NP-SE-4 (CL -se))
	  (NP-SBJ-4 (D-UM-F uma)
		    (N frota)
		    (PP (P para)
			(NP (D-F a) (NPR Índia)))
		    (CP-REL (WPP-2 (P de)
				   (NP (WPRO que)))
			    (IP-SUB (VB-D ia)
				    (PP (P por)
					(NP (N capitão)
					    (ADJ mór)
					    (NP-GEN *T*-2)))
				    (NP-SBJ (NPR Pedro) (NPR Álvares) (NPR Cabral)))))
	  (. :)
	  (CP-CAR (WNP-3 (WPRO que))
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
			  (SR-D foi)
			  (NP-ACC=0011=001 (D-F a)
				  (ADJ-F segunda)
				  (N=0011/1/0011 navegação)
				  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
					  (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
						  (VB-D fizeram)
						  (NP-SBJ (D-P os) (NPR-P Portugueses))
						  (PP (P para)
						      (NP (D-F-P aquelas)
							  (N-P partes)
							  (PP (P d@)
							      (NP (D @o) (NPR Oriente)))))))
				  (. .)
				  (CP-REL ... ))))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,6.1))
in
 Reinando aquele muito católico e sereníssimo príncipe el-rei Dom Manuel,
 fez-se uma frota para a Índia de que ia por capitão mór Pedro Álvares Cabral,
 que foi a segunda navegação que fizeram os Portugueses para aquelas partes do Oriente  

 'On the kingdom of that very catholic and serene Prince the King Dom Manuel,
 a fleet to India was made of which went as captain general Pedro Álvares Cabral,
 which was the second navigation that made the Portuguese to those parts of the East' 
where
 (NP-ACC=0011=001 a segunda navegação) is a new referent,
 not related to any phrase in the text,
 even though the adjective involved is 'segunda'. 
and
 (N=0011/1/0011 navegação), first occurrence of the noun


2.2.2 With no expressed nouns

NPs containing definite determiners, and no noun, always appeared as further mentions of previously occurring NPs. This depends on their further internal structure (whether they include or not an adjective)

They are marked accordingly as shown below.


(NP (D …)(ADJ))

NPs containing definite determiners, an adjective, and no noun, always appear as further mentions of previously occurring phrases
They are marked with the same number as those previously occurring phrases, and further sub-tagged for number of occurrence with =002, =003, etc., according to their place in the chain of references:

[22] 'Os louros',
     (NP-SBJ=5466&5465=002 (D-P Os) (ADJ-P louros)), and
     'os pardos',
     (NP-SBJ-1=5467&5465=002 (D-P os) (ADJ-P pardos)):
((IP-MAT (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ *exp*)
		      (VB-P convém)
		      (PP (P a)
			  (IP-INF (VB saber))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (HV-P há)
	  (IP-SMC (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ=5466&5465=001 (D-UM-P uns))
			  (ADJP (ADJ-P louros)))
		  (, ,)
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
			 (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ=5467&5465=001 (OUTRO-P outros))
				 (ADJP (ADJ-P pardos)))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,23.370))

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5466&5465=002 (D-P Os) (N-P louros))
	  (TR-P têm)
	  (NP-ACC (D-UM um)
		  (N cabelo)
		  (ADJP (Q muito) (ADJ fino)))
	  (, ,))
(ID G_008,23.371))

(...)

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1=5467&5465=002 (D-P Os) (ADJ-P pardos))
	  (NP-SE-1 (CL se))
	  (VB-P acham)
	  (PP (PP (P d@)
		  (ADVP (ADV @aí)))
	      (P para)
	      (NP (D o) (NPR Norte)))
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP (Q-F-P todas) (D-F-P as) (ADV-R mais) (N-P capitanias)))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,23.375))
in
Bugios há na terra muitos e de muitas castas como já se sabe ...
Há uns ruivos não muito grandes que derramam de si um cheiro muito suave ...
Outros há perto maiores que estes , que tem barba  como homem ...
Há também uns pequeninos pela costa de duas castas pouco maiores que doninhas,
a que comumente chamam  Sagüis , convém a saber , há uns louros, e outros pardos.
Os louros têm um cabelo muito fino,
e na  semelhança do vulto e feição do corpo quase se querem parecer com leão :
são muito formosos, e não os há senão no Rio de Janeiro .
Os pardos se acham daí para o Norte em todas as mais capitanias.

 Os louros têm um cabelo muito fino
 'The blond have a very fine hair'

 Os pardos se acham daí para o Norte 
 'The brown are found therein to the North'

where
 (NP-SBJ=5466&5465=002 Os louros) is the second reference to
 (NP-SBJ=5466&5465=001 uns louros),
and
 (NP-SBJ-1=5467&5465=002 Os pardos) is the second reference to
 (NP-SBJ=5467&5465=001 outros pardos)


(NP (D …))

NPs containing definite determiners, no noun, and no adjective, always appear as new referents. Because they do not contain a noun, this new referents receive a new index, independent of the inventory. 

However, because such constructions always included prepositional phrases after the determiner, they have been interpreted as involving the elision of a noun complemented by this PP. To mark this, the phrase’s index is followed by the additional annotation denoting relation with a noun (#), and the unique index of the noun interpreted as elided. The phrase is further sub-tagged for number of occurrence with =001:

[23] 'o de outro que que não serve de mais que de tingir panos ou coisas semelhantes',
     (NP-SBJ=5901#0065=001 (D o) (PP de outro) (CP-REL que que não serve de mais que de tingir panos ou coisas semelhantes)):
(CP-ADV (C Porque)
		  (IP-SUB-4 (PP (P n@)
				(NP (D-F @a) (N verdade)))
			    (ADVP (ADV-R mais)
				  (CP-CMP *ICH*-5))
			    (SR-P é)
			    (PP (P de)
				(IP-INF (VB estimar)))
			    (IP-SUB-PRN-4 (CONJ e)
					  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
					  (ADVP (ADV-R melhor))
					  (VB-P soa)
					  (PP (P n@)
					      (NP (D-P @os)
						  (N-P ouvidos)
						  (PP (P d@)
						      (NP (D-F @a) (N gente) (ADJ Cristã))))))
			    (NP-SBJ=5900#0065=001 (D o)
				    (N=0190/7/0065 nome)
				    (PP (P de)
					(NP (D-UM um)
					    (N pau)
					    (CP-REL (WPP-2 (P em)
							   (NP (WPRO que)))
						    (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
							    (NP-SE-1 (CL se))
							    (VB-D obrou)
							    (NP-SBJ-1 (D o)
								      (N mistério)
								      (PP (P de)
									  (NP (PRO$ nossa) (N redenção)))))))))
			    (, ,)
			    (CP-CMP-5 (C que)
				      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=5901#0065=001 (D o)
						                    (PP (P de)
							                (NP (OUTRO outro)
							            (CP-REL (WNP-3 (WPRO que))
								            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
									      (NEG não)
									      (VB-P serve)
									      (PP (P de)
										  (ADVP (ADV-R mais)
											(CP-CMP (C que)
												(IP-SUB (PP (P de)
													    (IP-INF (VB tingir)
														    (NP-ACC (NP (N-P panos))
															    (CONJP (CONJ ou)
																   (NP (N-P coisas) (ADJ-G-P semelhantes))))))))))))))))))
		  (. .)))
  (ID G_008,7.18))
where
 (NP-SBJ=5901=001 o de outro que...) is a new referent.

additional annotation, #
(NP-SBJ=5901#0065=001 o de outro que...), 
indicating an elided noun 'nome' (0065) within this NP.

The second case of NP containing definite determiners, no noun, and no adjective, are, furthermore, complex new referents – i.e., it is a related to a previously occurring phrase. Again, because they do not contain a noun, this new referents receive a new index, independent of the inventory; however, in this case the new index is followed by the index of the related phrase, with the symbol ‘&’.

Additionally, like the former case, the constructions include prepositional phrases after the determiner, and have been interpreted as involving the elision of a noun complemented by this PP; and again, to mark this, the phrase’s index (in this case, the complete index xxxx&yyyy) is followed by the additional annotation denoting relation with a noun (#), and the unique index of the noun interpreted as elided. The phrase is further sub-tagged for number of occurrence with =001:

[24] 'O da banda do norte',
     (NP-SBJ=5016&0681 O da banda do norte), and
     'o da banda do sul',
     (NP-SBJ=5017&0681 o da banda do sul):
((IP-MAT (CONJ Mas)
	  (NP-SBJ-1 *pro*)
	  (CP-ADV (C porque)
		  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
				  (PP (PP (P de)
					  (NP (D-UM-F-P umas)))
				      (P a)
				      (NP (OUTRO-F-P outras)))
				  (HV-P há)
				  (NP-ACC (Q-F muita) (N distância)))
			  (, ,)
			  (CONJP (CONJ e)
				 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D-F a) (N gente))
					 (VB-P vai)
					 (PP (P em)
					     (NP (Q muito) (N crescimento)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D repartiu-)
	  (NP-SE-1 (SE -se))
	  (ADVP (ADV agora))
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP=7055#1018=001 (NUM-F duas) (N-P=1018/1/1018 governações)))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,14.143))

(...)

((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP=5163&7055=001 (Q-G cada)
		  (D-UM-F uma)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP=7055#1018=002 (PRO @elas)))))
	  (VB-P assiste)
	  (NP-SBJ=0681&7055=001 (PRO$ seu) (N=1026/5/0681 governador))
	  (PP (P com)
	      (NP (D-F a) (ADJ-F mesma) (N alçada)))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,15.147))

((IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ=5016&0681=001 (D O)
				      (PP (P d@)
					  (NP (D-F @a)
					      (N banda)
					      (PP (P d@)
					          (NP (D @o) (N norte))))))
		    (VB-P reside)
		    (PP (P n@)
			(NP (D-F @a)
			    (NPR Bahia)
			    (PP (P de)
				(NP (Q-P todos) (D-P os) (NPR-P Santos))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		 (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ=5017&0681=001 (D o)
					     (PP (P d@)
						 (NP (D-F @a)
						     (N banda)
						     (PP (P d@)
							 (NP (D @o) (NPR Sul))))))
			   (PP (P n@)
			       (NP (D @o)
				   (NPR Rio)
				   (PP (P de)
				       (NP (NPR Janeiro)))))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,15.148))
in
Mas porque de umas a outras há muita distância, e a gente vai em muito crescimento,
repartiu-se agora em duas governações, convém a saber,)
da capitania de Porto Seguro para o Norte fica uma, e da do Espírito Santo para o Sul fica outra:
e em cada uma delas assiste seu governador com a mesma alçada.
O da banda do norte reside na Bahia de todos os Santos,
e o da banda do sul no Rio de Janeiro.

 O da banda do norte reside na Bahia de todos os Santos,
 e o da banda do sul no Rio de Janeiro
 'The one from the part of the north resides in Bahia de todos os Santos,
 and the one from the part of the south in Rio de Janeiro'

where 
 (NP-SBJ=5016&0681=001 O da banda do norte),
 (NP-SBJ=5017&0681=001 o da banda do sul) are new referents, related to 
 (NP-SBJ=0681&7075=001 seu governador)

additional annotation, # 
(NP-SBJ=5016&0681#0681=001 O da banda do norte),
(NP-SBJ=5017&6081#0681=001 o da banda do sul), 
indicating an elided noun 'governador' (0681) in each phrase.


(NP (D …) (IP-INF …))

NPs containing a determiner D and an infinitive clause always appear as new referents. Such NPs are marked with a new index, unrelated to any other index in the inventory:

[25] 'O ser ela tão salutífera e livre de enfermidades',
     (NP-SBJ=5024=001 (D O) (IP-INF ser ela tão salutífera e livre de enfermidades)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5024=001 (D O)
			    (IP-INF (SR ser)
				    (NP-SBJ (PRO ela))
				    (ADJP (ADV-R tão)
					  (ADJ-F salutífera)
					  (CONJP (CONJ e)
						 (ADJX (ADJ-G livre)
						       (PP (P de)
							   (NP (N-P enfermidades))))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-P procede)
	  (PP (P d@)
	      (NP (D-P @os)
		  (N-P ventos)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (ADVP (ADV geralmente))
				  (VB-P cursam)
				  (PP (P n@)
				      (NP (PRO @ela)))))
		  (. :)
		  (...) ))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,8.26)) 


2.3 NPs with OUTRO

NPs containing the determiner OUTRO – (OUTRO outro), (OUTRO-P outros); and (OUTRO-F outra), (OUTRO-F-P outras) – appear as new (complex) referents in most configurations, and as further mentions of previously occurring phrases in constructions where there is no noun and no other modifier in the phrase.

The guidelines for each relevant construction is exposed below


2.3.1 With expressed nouns


(NP (OUTRO …) (N …))

NPs containing the determiner OUTRO and a noun always appear as new referents. The references are always complex, i.e, they involve a relation to a phrase mentioned before. Such NPs coded with a new index, and the index of the phrase related to it is then added to this primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[26] 'Outros animais',
     (NP-ACC=5833&1437=001 (OUTRO-P Outros) (N-P=1734/10/1473 animais) (CP-REL ...))
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (NP-ACC=5833&1437=001 (OUTRO-P Outros)
		                (N-P=1734/10/1473 animais)
		                (CP-REL *ICH*-1))
	  (HV-P há)
	  (PP (P n@)
	      (NP (D-F @esta) (N província)))
	  (ADJP (Q muito)
		(ADJ-P feros)
		(, ,)
		(CONJP (CONJ e)
		       (ADJX (ADJ-G-P prejudiciais)
			     (PP (PP (P a)
				     (NP (Q-F toda) (D-F esta) (N caça)))
				 (, ,)
				 (CONJP (CONJ e)
					(PP (P a@)
					    (NP (D @o)
						(N gado)
						(PP (P d@)
						    (NP (D-P @os) (N-P moradores))))))))))
	  (. ;)
	  (CP-REL-1 ...)
	  (. :))
  (ID G_008,21.316))
in 
Outros animais há nesta província muito feros, 
e prejudiciais a toda esta caça, e ao gado dos moradores; 
aos quais chamam Tigres, ainda que na terra a mais da gente os nomeia por Onças.

 Outros animais há nesta província muito feros
 'Other animals there are in this province very fierce'

where 
(NP-ACC=5833&1437=001 Outros animais) is a new referent, 
expressing a particular case in a class 'animais', (N=1734/10/1437)
[27] 'outra povoação chamada Igaroçú', 
     (NP-ACC=5075&0581=001 (OUTRO-F outra) (N=0638/4/0581 povoação) (ADJP chamada Igaroçú)):
((IP-MAT (NP-MSR (NUM Cinco)
		  (N-P léguas)
		  (ADVP (PP (P pel@)
			    (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))
			(ADV dentro)))
	  (ET-P está)
	  (NP-SBJ=5075&0581=001 (OUTRO-F outra)
		                (N=0638/4/0581 povoação)
		                (ADJP (VB-AN-F chamada)
			              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
				              (NP-ACC (N Igaroçú))))
		                (, ,)
		                (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *T*-1)
				                (PP (P por)
				                    (NP (OUTRO outro) (N nome)))
				                (NP-SE-2 (CL se))
				                (VB-P diz)
				                (, ,)
				                (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-2)
					                (NP-ACC (D-F a)
						                (N vila)
						                (PP (P d@)
						                    (NP (D-P @os) (N-P Cosmos))))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,11.87))
in
A segunda capitania que a diante se segue se chama Paranambuco: a qual conquistou Duarte Coelho, 
e edificou sua principal povoação em um alto à vista do mar, 
que está cinco léguas desta ilha de Tamaracá, em altura de oito graus. 
Chama-se Olinda , é uma das mais nobres e populosas vilas que há nestas partes. 
Cinco léguas pela terra dentro está outra povoação chamada Igaroçú, que por outro nome se diz, a vila dos Cosmos .

 Cinco léguas pela terra dentro está outra povoação chamada Igaroçú
 'Five leagues into the land lays other settlement called Igaroçu'

where
(NP-ACC=5075&0581=001 Outra povoação chamada Igaroçú) is a new referent, expressing a particular case in a class 'povoação',
(N=0638/4/0581 povoação)


(NP (D …) (OUTRO …) (N …))

NPs containing the determiner D, OUTRO + a noun, only appear as new referents. The references are always complex, i.e, they involve a relation to a phrase mentioned before. Such NPs coded with a new index, and the index of the phrase related to it is then added to this primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
Such NPs coded with a new index. The index of the phrase related to this NP is then added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[28] 'A outra povoação a que chamam Santo Amaro',
     (NP-SBJ=5115&0581=001 (D-F a) (OUTRO-F outra) (N=0817/11/0581 povoação) (CP-REL a que chamam Santo Amaro)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (TR-P Tem)
	  (NP-ACC=7033&0457=001 (NUM-F duas)
		                (N-P=0796/7/0457 povoações)
		                (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				                (ET-P estão)
				                (ADJP (ADJ-G-P distantes)
					              (PP (P d@)
					                  (NP (D-F @a)
						              (PP (P d@)
						                  (NP (D-P @os) (NUM Ilhéus))))))
				                (NP-MSR (NUM trinta) (N-P léguas))
				                (PP (P em)
				                    (NP (N altura)
					                (PP (P de)
					                    (NP (NP (NUM dezesseis) (N-P graus))
						            (CONJP (CONJ e)
							           (NP (N meio)))))))))
		                (. :)
		               (CP-REL ...) 
	   ))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,11.113))

((IP-MAT-3 (NP-SBJ=5114&7033=001 (D-F A) (ADJ-G principal) (N=0806/10/0581 povoação))
	    (ET está)
	    (ADJP (VB-AN-F situada)
		  (PP (P em)
		      (NP (NUM dois) (N-P lugares))))
	    (, ,)
	    (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ *exp*)
			(VB-P convém)
			(PP (P a)
			    (IP-INF (VB saber))))		    
	    (IP-MAT-PRN-3 ... )
	    (. .))
  (ID G_008,13.114))

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5115&7033=001 (D-F A)
		                    (OUTRO-F outra)
		                    (N=0817/11/0581 povoação)
		                    (CP-REL (WPP-1 (P a)
				                   (NP (WPRO que)))
			                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
				                    (VB-P chamam)
				                    (IP-SMC (PP-SBJ *T*-1)
					                    (NP-ACC (NPR Santo) (NPR Amaro))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (ET-P está)
	  (NP-MSR (D-UM-F uma)
		  (N légua)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP (D @este) (N rio)))
		  (PP (P para)
		      (NP (D o) (NPR Sul))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,13.115))
in

A quinta capitania a que chamam Porto Seguro, conquistou Pero do Campo Tourinho. 
Tem duas povoações que estão distantes da dos Ilhéus trinta léguas em altura de dezesseis graus e meio : 
entre as quais se mete um rio que faz um arrecife na boca como enseada onde os navios entram. 
A principal povoação está situada em dois lugares, convém a saber 
parte dela em um teso soberbo que fica sobre o rolo do mar, da banda do Norte, 
e parte em uma várzea que fica pegada com o rio. 
A outra povoação a que chamam Santo Amaro, está uma légua deste rio para o Sul. 

 A outra povoação a que chamam Santo Amaro, está uma légua deste rio para o Sul.
 'The other settlement called Santo Amaro, lays one league from this river to the South'.

where
(NP-SBJ=5115&7033=001 a outra povoação, a que chamam Santo Amaro) is a new referent, related to
(NP-ACC=7033&0457=001 duas povoações...),

(i.e., it expresses one of two components of the group 'duas povoações...', as did (NP-SBJ=5114&7033=001 a principal povoação ...) before it)

Indexes may combine, forming
(NP-ACC=7033&0457=001 duas povoações...)
(NP-SBJ=5114&7033&0457=001 a principal povoação ...) 
(NP-SBJ=5115&7033&0457=001 a outra povoação, a que chamam Santo Amaro)

Additional annotation may apply, with '#', connecting the two nouns 'povoações' (0457) /'povoações' (0581):
(NP-ACC=7033&0457=001 duas povoações...)
(NP-SBJ=5114&7033&0457#0581=001 a principal povoação ...) 
(NP-SBJ=5115&7033&0457#0581=001 a outra povoação, a que chamam Santo Amaro)


2.3.2 With no expressed nouns


(NP (OUTRO …))

NPs containing OUTRO and no noun can be new referents or further mentions of previously occurring phrases.

They are marked accordingly in each case, as shown below.

  • Note: This difference is distinguished by interpretation only.

(A) New referents

NPs containing OUTRO and no noun, interpreted as new referents, are coded with a new index. The index of the phrase related to this NP is then added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[29] 'outros', 
     (NP-SBJ=5058&0079=001 (OUTRO-P outros)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (ADVP (ADV Junto)
		(PP (P d@)
		    (NP (PRO @elas))))
	  (HV-D havia)
	  (NP-ACC=5050&0079=001 (Q-P muitos) (N-P=0547/2/0079 Índios))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-ADV (C quando)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D-P os) (NPR-P Portugueses))
			  (VB-D começaram)
			  (PP (P de)
			      (IP-INF (NP-ACC (CL as))
				      (VB povoar)))))
	  (. :))
  (ID G_008,10.71))
(...)
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5058&5050=001 (OUTRO-P outros))
	  (VB-D fugiram)
	  (PP (P para)
	      (NP (D o) (N sertão)))
	  (, ,))
(ID G_008,10.74))
in
Junto delas havia muitos Índios, quando os Portugueses começaram de as povoar: 
mas porque os mesmos Índios se levantavam contra eles e faziam-lhes muitas traições , 
os governadores e capitães da terra destruíram-nos pouco a pouco 
e mataram muitos deles: 
outros fugiram para o sertão, e assim ficou a terra desocupada de gentio ao longo das povoações.

 outros fugiram para o sertão...
 'others ran away towards the inland...'

where
(NP-ACC=5058&5050=001 outros) is a new referent, related to 
(NP-ACC=5050&0079=001 muitos Índios)
(i.e., 'other of' the many indians ran away)

Indexes may compound,i.e.,
(NP-ACC=5058&5050&0079=001 outros)

(B) Further mentions

NPs containing OUTRO and no noun, interpreted as further mentions of a previously occurring phrase, are coded with the index of the previously occurring phrase, and further tagged with =002, =003, etc., according to its position in the chain of references.

[30] 'outros',
     (NP-SBJ=5467&5465=004 (OUTRO-P outros)):
((IP-MAT (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ *exp*)
		      (VB-P convém)
		      (PP (P a)
			  (IP-INF (VB saber))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (HV-P há)
	  (IP-SMC (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D-UM-P uns))
			  (ADJP (ADJ-P louros)))
		  (, ,)
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
			 (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ=5467&5465=001 (OUTRO-P outros))
				 (ADJP (ADJ-P pardos)))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,23.370))

(...)

((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (ADVP (ADV assim))
	  (NP-SBJ (NX (D-UM-P uns))
		      (CP-CMP (C como)
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=5467&5465=004 (OUTRO-P outros)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (SR-P são)
	  (ADJP (ADV tão)
		(ADJ-P mimosos)
		(CONJP (CONJ e)
		       (ADJX (ADJ-P delicados)
			     (PP (P de)
				 (NP (PRO$ sua) (N natureza)))))
		(, ,)
		(CP-DEG (C que) ...))))
in
Há também uns pequeninos pela costa de duas castas pouco maiores que doninhas, 
a que comumente chamam  Sagüis , convém a saber , 
há uns louros, e outros pardos. Os louros têm um cabelo muito fino, 
e na  semelhança do vulto e feição do corpo quase se querem parecer com leão : 
são muito formosos , e não os há senão no Rio de Janeiro . 
Os pardos se acham daí para o Norte em todas as mais capitanias. 
Também são muito aprazíveis : mas não tão alegres à vista como estes . 
E assim uns como outros, são tão mimosos e delicados de sua natureza, 
que como os tiram da pátria e os embarcam para este Reino, 
tanto que chegam a outros ares mais frios quase todos morrem no mar, 
e não escapa senão algum de grande maravilha . 

 E assim uns como outros
 'And so ones as others'

where
(NP-SBJ=5467&5465=004 outros) is the fourth mention of 
(NP-ACC=5467&5465=001 outros pardos)


(NP (D …) (OUTRO …))

NPs containing the determiner D, OUTRO, and no noun, always appear as further mentions of a previously occurring phrase. They are coded with the index of this previously occurring phrase, and further tagged with =002, =003, etc., according to its position in the chain of references:

[31] 'a outra',
     (NP=1122=005 (D-F a) (OUTRO-F outra)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1=1122=001 (D-F A) (N=1127/1/1122 raiz))
	  (NP-1 (CL se))
	  (VB-P chama)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
		  (NP-ACC (N Mandioca)))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,16.166))
(...)

((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (ADVP (ADV Também))
	  (HV-P há)
	  (NP-ACC=5206&1122=001 (OUTRO-F outra)
		  (N casta)
		  (PP (P de)
		      (NP (N Mandioca)))
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (TR-P tem)
				  (NP-ACC (ADJ-G diferente)
					  (N propriedade)
					  (PP (P d@)
					      (NP (D-F @esta))))))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL (WPP-2 (P a)
				 (NP (WPRO que)))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
				  (PP (P por)
				      (NP (OUTRO outro) (N nome)))
				  (VB-P chamam)
				  (IP-SMC (PP-SBJ *T*-2)
					  (NP-ACC (NPR Aipim)))))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL ...)
		  )
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,16.193))
(...)
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D O)
		  (N sumo)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP=5206&1122=004 (D-F @esta) (N raiz))))
	  (NEG não)
	  (SR-P é)
	  (ADJP (ADJ peçonhento)
		(, ,)
		(CP-CMP (C como)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (D o) (WPRO que))
						(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
							(VB-P sai)
							(PP (P d@)
							    (NP=1122=005 (D-F @a) (OUTRO-F outra)))))))))
	  (, ,))
(ID G_008,17.194))
in
A raiz se chama Mandioca, e a planta de que se gera é da altura de um homem 
pouco mais ou menos. (...)
Também há outra casta de Mandioca que tem diferente propriedade desta,
a que por outro nome chamam Aipim, da qual fazem uns bolos em algumas capitanias,
que parecem no sabor que excedem a pão fresco deste Reino.
O sumo desta raiz não é peçonhento, como o que sai da outra, 
nem faz mal a nenhuma coisa ainda que se beba.

 O sumo desta raiz não é peçonhento, como o que sai da outra,...
 'The juice from this root is not poisonous as the one that comes from the other...'

where
(NP=1122=005 a outra) is the 5th reference to
(NP-SBJ-1=1122=001 A raiz )

Note. Possible patterns with OUTRO in Modern Portuguese, not found in this text:
(NP (D-UM …) (OUTRO …) (N …))
(NP (D-UM …) (OUTRO …))


2.4 NPs with Q

Quantified NPs always form new referents in this corpus, in all relevant internal configurations, and independent of the nature of the nouns they may contain. The markup will be different depending on the internal structure,
and on the nature of the contained noun, as follows.


2.4.1 With expressed nouns

NPs with quantifiers and nouns always appear as new referents. They are marked in different ways depending on their internal structure and on the nature of the indexes on the nouns they contain. The guidelines applying to all constructions involving quantifiers are exemplified below.


(NP (Q …) (N …))

NPs with a quantifier and a noun always appear as new referents.

They are marked in different ways depending on their internal structure and on the nature of the indexes on the nouns they contain.

  1. NPs in the form Q +N containing a noun in its first occurrence are treated as simple new referents. Such NPs are coded with the number of the contained noun, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.
[32] 'muito acrescentamento de suas fazendas',
     (NP=0703=001 (Q muito) (N=0703/1/0703 acrescentamento) (PP de suas fazendas)):
((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (PP (PP (P d@)
		  (ADVP (ADV @aqui)))
	      (P por)
	      (ADVP (ADV diante)))
	  (VB-D foram)
	  (ADVP (ADV sempre))
	  (NP-SBJ (D-P os) (N-P moradores))
	  (VB-G multiplicando)
	  (PP (P com)
	      (NP=0703=001 (Q muito)
			   (N=0703/1/0703 acrescentamento)
			   (PP (P de)
			       (NP (PRO$ suas) (N-P fazendas)))))
	  (. .))
 (ID G_008,11.96))
in
E daqui por diante foram sempre os moradores multiplicando
com muito acrescentamento de suas fazendas.
'And therein were always the inhabitants multiplying
 with much growth of their farms'

where
(N=0703/1/0703 acrescentamento), 1st occurrence of the noun
[33] 'muita quietação',
     (NP=0081=001 (Q-F muita) (N=0081/1/0081 quietação)):
((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	 (NP-SBJ  (D-P os)
		  (NPR Índios)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
				 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				         (ADVP (ADV ali))
					 (NP-ACC (CL se))
					 (VB-D ajuntaram))))
	  (VB-D ouviam)
	  (NP-ACC (Q tudo))
	  (PP (P com)
	      (NP=0081=001 (Q-F muita) (N=0081/1/0081 quietação))) (, ,) ...))
in
e os Índios da terra que ali se ajuntaram ouviam tudo com muita quietação
'and the Indians of the land who there gathered listened all with much quietness'

where
(N=0081/1/0081 quietação), 1st occurrence of the noun
  1. NPs in the form Q + N containing a noun not in first ocurrence also appear as new referents. Such NPs are coded with new indexes, and the index of the noun contained in the NP is then added to this primary index, with a symbol ‘#’. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.
[34] 'alguns Portugueses',
     (NP-SBJ=5004#0012=001 (Q-P alguns) (NPR-P=0409/1/0012 Portugueses)):
(CP-REL-4 (WPP-3 (P por)
	         (NP (D-UM um)
		     (PP (P d@)
			 (NP (D-P @os) (WPRO-P quais)))))
		    (IP-SUB (PP *T*-3)
			    (VB-D entraram)
			    (NP-SBJ=5004#0012=001 (Q-P alguns) (NPR-P=0409/3/0012 Portugueses)) ...))
in
Aqui se metem dois rios nele que vem do sertão, por um dos quais entraram 
alguns Portugueses quando foi do descobrimento que foram fazer no ano de 35 
e navegaram por ele acima duzentas e cinqüenta léguas, até que não puderam ir 
mais por diante por causa da água ser pouca e o rio se ir estreitando de maneira,
que não podiam já por ele caber as embarcações.

 por um dos quais entraram alguns Portugueses
 'through one of which some Portuguese entered'

where
(NPR-P=0409/3/0012 Portugueses), third occurrence of the noun.


(NP (Q …) (D …) (N …))

NPs with a quantifier, a determiner and a noun always appear as new referents.
They are marked in different ways depending on their internal structure and on the nature of the indexes on the nouns they contain.

  1. NPs in the form Q + D + N containing a noun in its first occurrence are coded with the number of the contained noun, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[35] 'todas as dores',
     (NP-ACC=1445=001 (Q-F-P todas) (D-F-P as) (N=1445/1/1445 dores)):
((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (VB-P tira)
	  (NP-ACC=1445=001 (Q-F-P todas) (D-F-P as) (N-P=1445/1/1445 dores))
	  (PP (P por)
	      (ADJP (ADJ-G-P graves)
		    (CP-CMP (C que)
			    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
				    (SR-SP sejam)))))
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP (Q muito) (ADJ-G breve) (N espaço)))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,17.248))
in
 e tira todas as dores por graves que sejam em muito breve espaço
 'and takes off all the pains serious as they may be in a very short time'

where
(N=1445/1/1445 dores), 1st occurrence of the noun
  1. NPs in the form Q + N containing a noun not in first ocurrence are coded with new indexes, and the index of the noun contained in the NP is then added to this primary index, with a symbol ‘#’. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:
[36] 'toda a terra',
     (NP-ACC=5043#0046=001 (Q-F toda) (D-F a) (N=0452/16/0046 terra)):
((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (VB-P arrasa)
	  (NP-ACC=5043#0046=001 (Q-F toda) (D-F a) (N=0452/16/0046 terra))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,9.60))
in

 e arrasa toda a terra,
 'and destroys all the land', 
where
(N=0452/16/0046 terra), 16th occurrence of the noun


(NP (D …) (Q …) (N …))

NPs with a determiner, quantifier and a noun always appear as new referents.

NPs in the form D + Q + N containing a noun in its first occurrence are coded with the number of the contained noun, and further tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[37] 'a muita guerra que lhe fizeram',
     (NP=0691=001 (D-F a) (Q-F muita) (N=0691/1/0691 guerra) (CP-REL que lhe fizeram)):
(PP (P com)
  (NP (D-F a)
	(N força)
	(PP (P d@)
	    (NP=0691=001 (D-F @a)
		(Q-F muita)
		(N=0691/1/0691 guerra)
		(CP-REL (WNP (WPRO que))
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
				(NP-ACC *T*)
				(NP-DAT (CL lhe))
					(VB-D fizeram))) ... ))))
where
(N=0691/1/0691 guerra), 1st occurrence of the noun


2.4.2 With no expressed nouns

Quantified NPs not containing nouns always appear as new referents, and the references are always complex.


(NP (Q …))

Quantified NPs with no nouns and no determiners always appear as new referents. Such references are always complex. They are coded with new indexes, and the index of the phrase related to this NP is then added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[38] 'alguns estranhos nunca vistos em outras partes', 
     (NP-SBJ=5799&5437=001 (Q-P alguns) (ADJP estranhos nunca vistos em outras partes))
((IP-MAT (IP-MAT (NP-LFD=5437&1473=001 (D-P Os)
			                (OUTRO-P outros)
			                (N-P=1603/5/1473 animais)
			                (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
				                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *T*-1)
					                (PP (P n@)
					                    (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))
					                (NP-SE-2 (CL se))
					                (VB-D acharam))))
		  (, ,)
		  (NP-SBJ (Q-P todos))
		  (SR-P são)
		  (ADJP (ADJ-P bravos)
			(PP (P de)
			    (NP (N natureza)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		 (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=5799&5437=001 (Q-P alguns)
				 (CP-REL *ICH*-1))
			 (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ-P estranhos))
			       (CONJP (ADJP (ADV-NEG nunca)
					    (VB-AN-P vistos)
					    (PP (P em)
						(NP (OUTRO-F-P outras) (N-P partes))))))
			 (. :)
			 (CP-REL-1 ...)
				   ))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,20.279))
in

Os outros animais que na terra se acharam, todos são bravos de natureza, 
e alguns estranhos nunca vistos em outras partes.
 'The other animals that were found in the land, all are fierce of nature, 
and some strange never seen elsewhere'.

where 
(NP-SBJ=5799&5437=001 alguns estranhos nunca vistos em outras partes) is a new referent, related to
(NP-LFD=5437&1473=001 Os outros animais que na terra se acharam)

(i.e., of the 'other animals found on the land', 'some' are strange and never seen elsewhere)

Indexes may compound,
(NP-SBJ=5799&5437&1473=001 alguns estranhos nunca vistos em outras partes)
[39] 'algumas em particular',
     (NP=5019&6042=001 (Q-F algumas) (PP em particular))
((IP-MAT (SR-P SÃO)
	  (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ-R-F-P tantas))
		(CONJP (CONJ e)
		       (ADJP (ADV tão) (ADJ-F-P diversas)))
		(CP-DEG *ICH*-5))
	  (NP-SBJ=6042=001 (D-F-P as)
		           (N-P plantas)
		           (, ,)
		           (CONJP (NX (N-P frutas)))
		           (CONJP (CONJ e)
			          (NX (N-P ervas)))
		           (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			           (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
				           (NP-SBJ *exp*)
				           (HV-P há)
				           (PP (P n@)
				               (NP (D-F @esta) (N província)))))
                          (, ,)
		          (CP-REL (WPP-3 (P de)
				         (NP (WPRO que)))
			          (IP-SUB (NP-6 (CL se))
				          (VB-D podiam)
				          (IP-INF (NP-SE *-6)
					          (VB notar))
				                 (NP-SBJ-6 (Q-F-P muitas)
					                   (N-P particularidades)
					                   (PP *T*-3)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-DEG-5 ...)
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,15.163))

((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (PP (P por)
	      (NP (DEM isso)))
	  (NEG não)
	  (VB-R farei)
	  (ADVP (ADV agora))
	  (NP-ACC (N menção)
	  (, ,)
		   (PP (SENAO senão)
			(P de)
			(NP=5019&6042=001 (Q-F-P algumas)
				          (PP (P em)
				              (ADVP (ADJ-G particular))))))
	  (, ,) ...))
in

SÃO tantas e tão diversas as plantas, frutas e ervas que há nesta província , 
de que se podiam notar muitas particularidades, 
que seria coisa infinita escrevê-las aqui todas e dar notícia dos efeitos de cada uma miudamente. 
E por isso não farei agora menção, senão de algumas em particular, 
principalmente daquelas, de cuja virtude e fruto participam os Portugueses.

 E por isso não farei agora menção senão de algumas em particular
 'And because of that I will not give mention now but of some in particular' 

where 
(NP=5019&6042=001 algumas em particular) is a new referent, related to
(NP-SBJ=6042=001 as plantas, frutas e ervas que há nesta província).

(i.e., of the 'plants, fruits and herbs' in the province, he will mention 'some in particular')


(NP (Q-G cada) (D-UM …))

Quantified NPs with no nouns, the quantifier ‘cada’ (‘each’) and a determiner D-UM always appear as new referents, and the references are always complex.

Such NPs are coded with new indexes, and the index of the phrase related to this NP is then added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[40] 'cada uma',
     (NP=7051&0594=001 (Q-G cada) (D-UM-F uma))
((IP-MAT-2 (NP-SBJ (D Este)
		    (N braço)
		    (PP (P de)
			(NP (N mar)))
		    (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				    (VB-P cerca)
				    (NP-ACC (D-F esta) (N ilha)))))
	    (TR-P tem)
	    (NP-ACC=7051&0594=001 (NUM-F duas) (N-P=0935/3/0594 barras))
	    (IP-MAT-PRN-2 (NP-SBJ=5137&7051=001 (Q-G cada) (D-UM-F uma))
			  (PP (P para)
			      (NP (PRO$ sua) (N parte))))
	    (. .))
(ID G_008,14.134))
in
Este braço de mar que cerca esta ilha tem duas barras cada uma para sua parte.
'This sea branch that surrounds this island has two sand-banks each to its side'

where
(NP-SBJ=5137&7051=001 cada uma) is a new referent, related to
(NP-ACC=7051&0594=001 duas barras)

(i.e., 'each one' of the 'two sand-banks')

Indexes may compound,
(NP-SBJ=5137&7051&0594=001 cada uma)
[41] 'cada uma delas',
     (NP=5163&1018=001 (Q-G cada) (D-UM-F uma) (PP delas))
((IP-MAT (CONJ Mas)
	  (NP-SBJ-1 *pro*)
	  (CP-ADV (C porque)
		  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
				  (PP (PP (P de)
					  (NP (D-UM-F-P umas)))
				      (P a)
				      (NP (OUTRO-F-P outras)))
				  (HV-P há)
				  (NP-ACC (Q-F muita) (N distância)))
			  (, ,)
			  (CONJP (CONJ e)
				 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D-F a) (N gente))
					 (VB-P vai)
					 (PP (P em)
					     (NP (Q muito) (N crescimento)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D repartiu-)
	  (NP-SE-1 (SE -se))
	  (ADVP (ADV agora))
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP=7055&1018=001 (NUM-F duas) (N-P=1018/1/1018 governações)))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,14.143))

(...)
(...)

((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP=5163&7055=001 (Q-G cada)
		                (D-UM-F uma)
		                (PP (P d@)
		                    (NP=7055&1018=002 (PRO @elas)))))
	  (VB-P assiste)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO$ seu) (N governador))
	  (PP (P com)
	      (NP (D-F a) (ADJ-F mesma) (N alçada)))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,15.147))
in
Mas porque de umas a outras há muita distância , e a gente vai em muito crescimento , repartiu-se agora em duas governações ,
convém a saber , da capitania de Porto Seguro para o Norte fica uma , e da do Espírito Santo para o Sul fica outra:
e em cada uma delas assiste seu governador com a mesma alçada.

 e em cada uma delas assiste seu governador com a mesma alçada
 'and in each one of them assists its governor with the same power'

where
(NP=5163&7055=001 cada uma delas) is a new referent, related to
(NP=7055&1018=001 duas governações)

Indexes may compound,
(NP=5163&7055&1018=001 cada uma delas) 


2.5 NPs with NUM

Numbered NPs are always treated as new referents.

They are marked in one of two ways, depending on whether they contain a noun or not, as follows.


2.5.1 With expressed nouns

Numbered NPs containing nouns, be it the first or further occurrences of that noun, are treated as new referents. This applies to Numbered NPs with and without determiners, as shown below.


(NP (NUM …) (N …))

Numbered NPs containing a numeral and a noun are treated as new referents. They are coded with new indexes, and the index of the noun contained in the NP is then added to the primary index, with a symbol ‘#’. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[42] 'trinta léguas de boca',
     (NP-ACC=7005#0360=001 (NUM trinta) (N-P=0360/1/0360 léguas) (PP de boca)):
(CONJP  (CONJ e)
	(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
		(TR-P tem)
		(NP-ACC=7005#0360=001 (NUM trinta)
				      (N-P=0360/1/0360 léguas)
				      (PP (P de)
					  (NP (N boca)))) ...))
where
(N-P=0360/1/0360 léguas), 1st occurrence of the noun
[43] 'oito capitanias povoadas de portugueses',
     (NP-ACC=7018#0112=001 (NUM oito) (N-P=0508/3/0122 capitanias) (ADJP povoadas de portugueses)):
(NP-ACC=7018#0112=001 (NUM oito)
		        (N-P=0508/3/0112 capitanias)
			(ADJP (VB-AN-F-P povoadas)
			      (PP (P de)
				  (NP (NPR-P Portugueses)))) (, ,) ...)  
where
(N-P=0508/3/0112 capitanias), 3rd occurrence of the noun


(NP (D …) (NUM …) (N …))

Numbered NPs containing a determiner, a numeral and a noun are treated as new referents. They are coded with a new index, and the index of the noun contained in the NP is then added to the primary index, with a symbol ‘#’. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence:

[44] 'as quatro partes do mundo',
     (NP=7002#0013=001 (D-F-P as) (NUM quatro) (N-P=0201/3/0013 partes) (PP do mundo)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR ESTA)
		  (N província)
		  (NP-PRN (NPR Santa) (NPR Cruz)))
	  (ET-P está)
	  (ADJP (VB-AN-F situada)
		(PP (P n@)
		    (NP (D-F @aquela)
			(ADJ-G grande)
			(NPR América)
			(, ,)
			(NP-PRN (D-UM-F uma)
				(PP (P d@)
				    (NP=7002#0013=001 (D-F-P @as)
					              (NUM quatro)
					              (N-P=0201/3/0013 partes)
					              (PP (P d@)
					                  (NP (D @o) (N mundo)))))))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,7.19))
where
(N-P=0201/3/0013 partes), 3rd occurrence of the noun


2.5.2 With no expressed nouns


(NP (NUM …))

Numbered NPs not containing nouns are treated as new referents. They are coded with new indexes, entirely independent of the rest of the inventory, and further sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[45] '1500',
     (NP=5000=001 (NUM 1500)):
(PP (P n@)
     (NP (D @o)
         (N ano)
	   (PP (P de)
             (NP=5000=001 (NUM 1500)))))


2.6 NPs with PRO$

NPs containing possessive pronouns, PRO$, were always treated as complex new referents.

They are marked in one of two ways, depending on whether they contain a noun or not, as follows.


2.6.1 With expressed nouns

NPs with PRO$ containing nouns always appear as new referents, and are treated as complex referents.
This applies to possessive NPs with and without determiners, as shown below.


(NP (PRO$ …) (N …))

NPs containing a PRO$ and a noun always appear as new referents, and are treated as complex referents.

Such NPs are coded with the number of the contained noun. The index of the phrase related to this NP (i.e., the phrase to which PRO$ is the genitive) is then added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[46] 'seu governador',
     (NP-SBJ=0681&5163=001 (PRO$ seu) (N=1026/6/0681 governador)),
((IP-MAT (CONJ Mas)
	  (NP-SBJ-1 *pro*)
	  (CP-ADV (C porque)
		  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
				  (PP (PP (P de)
					  (NP (D-UM-F-P umas)))
				      (P a)
				      (NP (OUTRO-F-P outras)))
				  (HV-P há)
				  (NP-ACC (Q-F muita) (N distância)))
			  (, ,)
			  (CONJP (CONJ e)
				 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D-F a) (N gente))
					 (VB-P vai)
					 (PP (P em)
					     (NP (Q muito) (N crescimento)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D repartiu-)
	  (NP-SE-1 (SE -se))
	  (ADVP (ADV agora))
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP=7055#1018=001 (NUM-F duas) (N-P=1018/1/1018 governações)))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,14.143))

(...)

((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (PP (P em)
	      (NP=5163&7055=001 (Q-G cada)
		                (D-UM-F uma)
		                (PP (P d@)
		                    (NP=7055#1018 (PRO @elas)))))
	  (VB-P assiste)
	  (NP-SBJ=0681&5163=001 (PRO$ seu) (N=1026/6/0681 governador))
	  (PP (P com)
	      (NP (D-F a) (ADJ-F mesma) (N alçada)))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,15.147))
in
 e em cada uma delas assiste seu governador com a mesma alçada
 'and in each one of them assists its governor with the same power'

where
(NP-SBJ=0681&5163=001 seu governador) is a new referent, related by the genitive PRO$ to
(NP=5163&7055=001 cada uma delas) 

Indexes may compound,
(NP-SBJ=0681&5163&7055=001 seu governador)


(NP (D …) (PRO$ …) (N …))

NPs containing a determiner, a PRO$ and a noun always appear as new referents, and are treated as complex referents.

Such NPs are coded with the number of the contained noun. The index of the phrase related to this NP (i.e., the phrase to which PRO$ is the genitive) is then added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[47] 'O seu mantimento',
     (NP-SBJ=1192&5453 (D O) (PRO$ seu) (N=1848/4/1192 mantimento)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1=5453&1182=001 (D-UM Um)
		                  (ADJ certo)
		                  (N=1830/3/1182 animal)
		                  (CP-REL *ICH*-2)
		                  (CP-REL *ICH*-6)
		                  (CP-REL *ICH*-7))
	  (NP-SE-1 (CL se))
	  (VB-P acha)
	  (ADVP (ADV também))
	  (PP (P n@)
	      (NP (D-F-P @estas) (N-P partes)))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-2 (WPP-3 (P a)
			   (NP (WPRO que)))
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
			    (VB-P chamam)
			    (IP-SMC (PP-SBJ *T*-3)
				    (NP-ACC (N Preguiça)))))
	  ( )
	  (CP-REL-6 ...)
	  ( )
	  (CP-REL-7 ...)
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,22.338))
(...)
(...)
(...)
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=1192&5453 (D O) (PRO$ seu) (N=1848/4/1192 mantimento))
	  (, ,)
	  (SR-P é)
	  (NP-ACC (N-P folhas)
		  (PP (P de)
		      (NP (N-P árvores)))))
(ID G_008,22.342))
in
Um certo animal se acha também nestas partes, a que chamam Preguiça 
(que é pouco mais, ou menos do tamanho destes) o qual tem um rosto feio , 
e umas unhas muito compridas quase como dedos. 
Tem uma gadelha grande no toutiço que lhe cobre o pescoço , 
e anda sempre com a barriga lançada pelo chão , sem nunca se levantar em pé como os outros animais : 
e assim se move com passos tão vagarosos , que ainda que ande quinze dias aturado, não vencerá distância de um tiro de pedra. 
O seu mantimento, é folhas de árvores, e em cima delas anda o mais do tempo.

 O seu mantimento é folhas de árvores ...
 'It's keeping are tree leaves'

where
(NP-SBJ=1192&5453 O seu mantimento) is a new referent, related by the genitive PRO$ to 
(NP-SBJ-1=5453&1182=001 um certo animal ...)

Indexes may compound,
(NP-SBJ=1192&5453&1182 O seu mantimento) 


2.6.2 With no expressed nouns


(NP (PRO$ …))

NPs containing PRO$ and no noun always appear as new referents, and are treated as complex references and as a construction involving elipsis.

Such NPs are coded with a new index, to which two additional marks are applied, one with the symbol ‘#’, and another with the symbol ‘&’.

First, the index corresponding to the elided ‘possessed’ noun is added to the new index, with a symbol ‘#’. Second, the index of the phrase related to the NP (i.e., the phrase of which PRO$ is the genitive) is added to the primary index, with a symbol &. The compounded index is sub-tagged with =001 for number of occurrence.

[48] 'os seus',
     (NP=5704#0970&5565 (D-P os) (PRO$ seus))
((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (ADVP (ADV além)
		(PP (P d@)
		    (NP (DEM @isto))))
	  (HV-P há)
	  (NP-ACC (OUTRO-F-P outras)
		  (N-P conjecturas)
		  (ADJP (Q muito) (ADJ-G-P prováveis))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL (WPP-1 (P por)
				 (ADVP (WADV onde)))
			  (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
				  (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
				  (NP-SE-2 (CL se))
				  (TR-P tem)
				  (PP (P por)
				      (ADJP (ADJ-G impossível)))
				  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *pro*)
					  (VB-P parirem)
					  (NP-ACC=5564&0970=002 (D-P os) (ADJ-R-G-P tais) (N-P=1826/5/0970 filhos))
					  (, ,)
					  (CP-CMP (C como)
						  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=5565&1473=001 (Q-P todos) (D-P os) (OUTRO-P outros) (N-P=1842/18/1473 animais))
							  ( )
							  (PP (P segundo)
							      (NP (N ordem)
								  (PP (P de)
								      (NP (N natureza)))))
							  ( <$$paren>)
							  (VB-SP parem)
							  (NP-ACC=5704#0970&5565 (D-P os) (PRO$ seus))))))))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,22.337))
in
Destes animais se afirma que não concebem nem geram os filhos dentro da barriga 
senão em aqueles bolsos, porque nunca de quantos se tomaram se achou algum prenhe. 
E além disto há outras conjecturas muito prováveis, 
por onde se tem por impossível parirem os tais filhos, 
como todos os outros animais ( segundo ordem de natureza) parem os seus.

 por onde se tem por impossível parirem os tais filhos, 
 como todos os outros animais (segundo ordem de natureza) 
 parem os seus
 'wherein it is held as impossible that they give birth to their offspring,
  like all the other animals (following the order of nature)
  give birth to theirs'.
 
where
(NP=5704&5565 os seus) is a new referent, related by the genitive PRO$ to 
(NP-SBJ=5565&1473=001 todos os outros animais)

additional annotation, with '#', indicating elision of 'filhos', (0970):
(NP=5704#0970&5566 os seus)   


2.7 NPs with DEM


(NP (DEM))

NPs containing demonstratives always appear as further mentions of a previously occurring phrase, or of events described in one or more previous clauses.

The markup will follow two patterns, depending on whether the reference is made to a phrase or a clause.

  1. If the NP mentions a previously occurring phrase, it is marked with the Referent ID given to the Noun Phrase they mention, added by a number of occurrence sub-tag according to its position in the chain of referents:
[49] 'aquilo',
     (NP-SBJ=2576=010 (DEM aquilo)):
((IP-MAT (SR-D FOI)
	  (NP-ACC (NP (N coisa)
		      (ADJP (ADJ-F nova)))
		  (, ,)
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
			 (ADJP (ADV tão)
			       (VB-AN-F desusada)
			       (PP (P a@)
				   (NP (D-P @os) (N-P olhos) (ADJ-P humanos)))
			       (CP-DEG *ICH*-3))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (D-F a)
		  (N semelhança)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP=2576=001 (D @aquele)
			  (ADJP (ADJ fero) (CONJ e) (ADJ espantoso))
			  (N=2576/1/2576 monstro)
			  (ADJ marinho)
			  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
				  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *T*-1)
					  (PP (P n@)
					      (NP (D-F @esta) (N província)))
					  (NP-SE-2 (CL se))
					  (VB-D matou)
					  (PP (P n@)
					      (NP (D @o)
						  (N ano)
						  (PP (P de)
						      (NUMP (NUM 1564))))))))))
	  (CP-DEG-3 ...)
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,29.536))
...
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (PP (P N@)
	      (NP (DEM @isto)))
	  (VB-D conheceu)
	  (NP-ACC (D o) (N mancebo))
	  (CP-THT (C que)
		  (IP-SUB (SR-D era)
			  (NP-SBJ=2576=010 (DEM aquilo))
			  (NP-ACC (N coisa)
				  (PP (P d@)
				      (NP (D @o) (N mar))))))
	  (, ,))
  (ID G_008,31.548))
in
FOI coisa nova , e tão desusada aos olhos humanos, a semelhança daquele 
fero e espantoso monstro marinho que nesta província se matou no ano de 1564 
que ainda que por muitas partes do mundo se tenha já notícia dele , 
não deixarei todavia de a dar aqui outra vez de novo, relatando por extenso 
tudo o que acerca disto passou .
...
E chegando-se um pouco mais a ele para que melhor se pudesse ajudar da vista, 
foi sentindo do mesmo monstro: o qual em levantando a cabeça, tanto que o viu , 
começou de caminhar para o mar de onde viera.
Nisto conheceu o mancebo que era aquilo coisa do mar, 
e antes que nele se metesse , acodiu com muita presteza a tomar-lhe a dianteira.

 Nisto conheceu o mancebo que era aquilo coisa do mar,
 'With this knew the youth that that was a thing from the sea'

where
(NP-SBJ=2576=010 aquilo) is the 10th reference to
(NP=2576=001 aquele fero e espantoso monstro marinho que nesta província se matou no ano de 1564)
  1. If the NP mentions events described in one or more previous clauses, it is marked with a new number, added by the symbol &. No ‘related’ Referent ID is added, as clauses don’t have a referent ID:
[50] 'Isto', 
     (NP-SBJ=5184& (DEM Isto)
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1=5184& (DEM Isto))
	  (ADVP (ADV geralmente))
	  (NP-SE-1=5184& (CL se))
	  (VB-P costuma)
	  (PP (P n@)
	      (NP (D-F-P @estas) (N-P partes)))
	  (, ,)) 
(ID G_008,15.161))
in
Estes moradores todos pela maior parte se tratam muito bem,
e folgam de ajudar uns aos outros com seus escravos
e favorecem muito os pobres que começam a viver na terra.
Isto geralmente se costuma nestas partes,
e fazem outras muitas obras pias,
por onde todos tem remédio de vida
e nenhum pobre anda pelas portas a mendigar como nestes Reinos. 

 Isto geralmente se costuma nestas partes
 'That generally is the used way in these parts' 
 
 where
 (NP-SBJ-1=5184& Isto) refers to the events described in the previous three IPs,
 'Estes moradores todos pela maior parte se tratam muito bem',
 'e folgam de ajudar uns aos outros com seus escravos'
 'e favorecem muito os pobres que começam a viver na terra'


3. Pronominal NPs

NPs containing pronouns always represent further mentions of a previously given referent or of events described in one or more previous clauses.

The specific guidelines for the different types of pronouns are exemplified below.


(NP (PRO …))

NPs containing pronouns PRO (nominative pronouns, ele/ela, eles/elas, etc.) always represent further mentions of a previously given referent.

Their markup will repeat the index given to the Noun Phrase they refer to, added by a number of occurrence sub-tag according to their position in the chain of referents.

[51] 'elas',
     (NP=2142=006 (PRO elas)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (ADVP (ADV somente))
	  (VB-P abrem)
	  (NP-ACC=2142=005 (D-F-P as) (N-P=2289/6/2142 asas)))
(ID G_008,26.470))

((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (PP (P com)
	      (NP=2142=006 (PRO elas)))
	  (VB-P vão)
	  (VB-G ferindo)
	  (NP-ACC (D o) (N ar))
	  (PP (P a@)
	      (NP (D @o)
		  (ADV longo)
		  (PP (P d@)
		      (NP (D-F @a) (ADJ-F mesma) (N terra)))))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,26.471))
in
Estas aves pastam ervas como qualquer outro animal do campo,
e nunca se levantam da terra, nem voam como as outras,
somente abrem as asas e com elas vão ferindo o ar ao longo da mesma terra:

 somente abrem as asas e com elas vão ferindo o ar ao longo da mesma terra:
 'only (*pro*) spread the wings and with them start punching the air along the land'.

where
(NP=2142=006 elas) is the sixth mention to
(NP-ACC=2142=005 as asas)


(NP (CL …))

NPs formed by the clitics ‘CL’ (i.e., me; te; o, a, lhe; nos; vos; os, as, lhes) represent further mentions either of a previously occurring referent, or of events described in one or more previous clauses.

They are marked in one of two ways, depending on whether the reference is made to a phrase or a clause:

  1. NPs containing clitics ‘CL’ representing further mentions of a previously occurring phrase are marked with the index of the phrase they refer to, and marked with =002, =003, etc. for number of occurrence, according to their position in the chain of referents:
[52] 'a',
     (NP-ACC=0457=004 (CL a)):
((IP-MAT-PRN (ADVP (ADV especialmente))
	      (NP-SBJ (D-UM-P uns)
		      (ADJP (ADJ-P pequenos)
			    (CP-CMP (C como)
				    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N-P esmerilhões))))
			    (PP (P em)
				(NP (PRO$ sua) (N quantidade)))))
	      (NP-ACC (CL o))
	      (SR-P são)
	      (ADVP (ADV-R tanto)
		    (, ,)
		    (CP-DEG (C que)
			    (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
					    (VB-P remetem)
					    (PP (P a)
						(NP=2079=001 (D-UM-F uma) (N=2079/1/2079 perdiz))))
				    (CONJP (CONJ e)
					   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
						   (NP-ACC=2079=02 (CL a))
						   (VB-P levam)
						   (PP (P n@)
						       (NP (D-F-P @as) (N-P unhas)))
						   (PP (P para)
						       (ADVP (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (WADV onde))
								     (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
									     (NP-SBJ *pro*)
									     (VB-P querem))))))))))
	      (. .))
(ID G_008,25.404))
in
Especialmente uns pequenos como esmerilhões em sua quantidade o são tanto,
que remetem a uma perdiz,
e a levam nas unhas para onde querem
' Particularly ones as small as merlins in their quantity are so much so
that (*pro*) target a partridge,
and take it in the claws to wherever they want '

where
(NP-ACC=2079=002 a) is the second reference to
(NP=2079=001 uma perdiz)
  1. NPs containing clitics ‘CL’, referring to events described in one or more previous clauses, are marked with a new number, added by the symbol &. No ‘related’ Referent ID is added, as clauses don’t have a referent ID:
[53] 'o',
     (NP-ACC=5901& (CL o)):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D-P Os) (N-P Gaviões))
	 (ADVP (ADV também))
	 (SR-P são)
	 (ADJP (Q muito)
	       (ADJ-P destros)
	       (CONJP (CONJ e)
		      (ADJX (ADJ-P forçosos))))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,25.403))

((IP-MAT-PRN (ADVP (ADV especialmente))
	        (NP-SBJ (D-UM-P uns)
		        (ADJP (ADJ-P pequenos)
			      (CP-CMP (C como)
				      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N-P esmerilhões))))
			      (PP (P em)
				  (NP (PRO$ sua) (N quantidade)))))
	      (NP-ACC=5901& (CL o))
	      (SR-P são)
	      (ADVP (ADV-R tanto)
		    (, ,)
		    (CP-DEG que...) 
	      (. .))
(ID G_008,25.404))
in
Os Gaviões também são muito destros e forçosos.
Especialmente uns pequenos como esmerilhões em sua quantidade
o são tanto que (...)
'The Hawks are also very able and strong.
 Particularly ones as small as merlins in their quantity
are so much so that (...)'

where
(NP-ACC=5901& o) refers to the previous IP,
'Os Gaviões também são muito destros e forçosos'.


(NP *pro*)

NPs containing null referential subjects, *pro*, always represent further mentions of a previously established referent.
They will be marked in one of three ways, depending on the nature of this previously established referent as a mentioned phrase, or as an implied person of the discourse explicit in the verb morphology.

  1. Null subjects *pro* referring to a phrase previously mentioned in the text will be marked with the index of the phrase they refer to, added by a number of occurrence sub-tag according to their position in the chain of referents:
[54] (NP-SBJ=1904=002 *pro*):
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	    (NP-ACC=1904=001 (N-P=1904/1/1904 Bugios)
		             (QP *ICH*-3))
	    (HV-P há)
	    (PP (P n@)
	        (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))
	    (QP-3 (QP (Q-P muitos))
		  (CONJP (CONJ e)
		         (PP (P de)
			     (NP (Q-F-P muitas) (N-P castas)))))
	    (CP-ADV (C como)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
			    (ADVP (ADV já))
			    (NP-SE-1-2 (CL se))
			    (VB-P sabe)))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,23.359))

((IP-MAT (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ *pro*)
	  (PP (P por)
	      (IP-INF (NP-SBJ=1904=002 *pro*)
		      (SR-F serem)
		      (ADJP (ADV tão)
			    (VB-AN-P conhecidos)
			    (PP (P em)
				(NP (Q-F toda) (D-F a) (N parte))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NEG não)
	  (VB-R particularizarei)
	  (ADVP (ADV aqui))
	  (NP-ACC (PRO$ suas) (N-P propriedades))
	  (PP (ADV-R tanto)
	      (P por)
	      (ADJP (ADJ extenso)))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,23.360))
in
Bugios há na terra muitos e de muitas castas como já se sabe:
e por serem tão conhecidos em toda a parte,
não particularizarei aqui suas propriedades tanto por extenso .

 e por serem tão conhecidos em diversas partestoda a parte ...
 'and because (*pro*) are so well known everywhere' ...

where
(NP-SBJ=1904=002 *pro*) is the second reference to
(N-P=1904=001 Bugios)
  1. Null subjects *pro* combined with a verb in first person will be marked with the fixed index ‘0000’:
[55] (NP-SBJ=0000=033 *pro*):
((IP-MAT  (CONJ e)
	  (NP-SBJ=0000=033 *pro*)
	  (PP (P por)
	      (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *pro*)
		      (SR-F serem)
		      (ADJP (ADV tão)
			    (VB-AN-P conhecidos)
			    (PP (P em)
				(NP (Q-F toda) (D-F a) (N parte))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NEG não)
	  (VB-R particularizarei)
	  (ADVP (ADV aqui))
	  (NP-ACC (PRO$ suas) (N-P propriedades))
	  (PP (ADV-R tanto)
	      (P por)
	      (ADJP (ADJ extenso)))
	  (. .))
(ID G_008,23.360))
  1. Null subjects *pro* combined with a verb in third person plural, interpreted as indeterminate subjects, will be marked with the fixed index ‘XXXX’:
[56] (NP-SBJ=XXXX=007 *pro*)
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=XXXX=007 *pro*)
	  (PP-LFD-1 (P D@)
		    (NP (D @o) (OUTRO outro)))
	  (NEG não)
	  (VB-D descobriram)
	  (NP-ACC (N coisa)
		  (Q-F alguma)
		  (PP *ICH*-1))
	  (, ,))
(ID G_008,9.48))


(WNP (WPRO …))

NPs containing Wh pronouns WPRO always represent further mentions of a previously given referent.

Their markup will repeat the index given to the Noun Phrase they refer to, added by a number of occurrence sub-tag according to their position in the chain of referents.

(See 4.2 below for the markup on the traces after WNPs)

[57] 'que',
     (NP=0005=003 (WPRO que)):
((IP-MAT (IP-GER (VB-G REINANDO)
		  (NP-SBJ (D aquele)
			  (ADJP (Q muito)
				(ADJ católico)
				(CONJP (CONJ e)
				       (ADJX (ADJ-S sereníssimo))))
			  (NPR Príncipe)
			  (NP-PRN (NPR el-Rei) (NPR Dom) (NPR MANUEL))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D fez-)
	  (NP-SE-4 (CL -se))
	  (NP-SBJ-4=0005=001 (D-UM-F uma)
		             (N frota)
		             (PP (P para)
			         (NP (D-F a) (NPR Índia)))
		             (CP-REL (WPP-2 (P de)
				   (NP=0005=003 (WPRO que))))
			    (IP-SUB (VB-D ia)
				    (PP (P por)
					(NP (N capitão)
					    (ADJ mór)
					    (NP-GEN *T*-2)))
				    (NP-SBJ (NPR Pedro) (NPR Álvares) (NPR Cabral)))))
	  (. :)...)
(ID G_008,6.1))
in
Reinando aquele muito católico e sereníssimo príncipe el-rei Dom Manuel,
fez-se uma frota para a Índia
de que ia por capitão mór Pedro Álvares Cabral...

'On the kingdom of that very catholic and serene Prince the King Dom Manuel,
 a fleet to India was made 
 of which went as captain general Pedro Álvares Cabral...'

where
(NP=0005=003 que) is the third reference to 
(NP-SBJ-4=0005=001 Uma frota para a Índia)			   


(NP-SE (SE …)

Noun phrases containing the clitic pronoun SE, NP-SE, may represent further mentions of a previously established referent, or may constitute particles affecting the voice of the clause.
They will be marked in one of three ways, depending on their syntactic function. The markups are directly derived from the syntactic annotation for each different case.

  1. NP-SE treated as ‘reflexive SE’ in the syntactic annotation (i.e., not co-indexed to any NP-SBJ) is marked as a regular pronoun, representing a further mention of a previoulsy occurring phrase. They are marked with the index of that related phrase, and further coded for number of occurrence accorging to their position in the chain of references:
[58] 'se', 
     (NP-SE=5042&0362=006 (CL se)):
((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (ADVP (ADV acima)
		(PP (P d@)
		    (NP (D-F @esta) (N cachoeira))))
	  (NP-SE=5042&0362=006 (CL se))
	  (VB-P mete)
	  (NP-SBJ=5042&0362=007 (D o) (ADJ mesmo) (N rio))
	  (ADVP (ADV debaixo)
		(PP (P d@)
		    (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))))
(ID G_008,9.57))
in
 E acima desta cachoeira se mete o mesmo rio debaixo da terra
 'and above this waterfall the same river puts itself under the earth'

where
(NP-SE=5042&0362=006 se) refers, as a reflexive, to
(NP-SBJ=5042&0362=007 o mesmo rio),
and is in the sixth position in the chain of (5042&0362)
  1. NP-SE treated as ‘passive SE’ in the syntactic annotation (i.e., co-indexed to a referential NP-SBJ) is marked with the index of the NP-SBJ marked as co-indexed in the syntactic annotation, and with this NP-SBJ’s number of occurrence tag as well:
[59] 'se',
     (NP-SE-4=0005=001 (CL -se)):
(VB-D fez-)
(NP-SE-4=0005=001 (CL -se))
(NP-SBJ-4=0005=001 (D-UM-F uma)
		   (N frota)
		   (PP (P para)
		       (NP (D-F a) (NPR Índia)))
in
 fez-se uma frota para a Índia
 'a fleet was made to Índia'

where
(NP-SE-4=0005=001 se) is con-indexed, in the syntactic annotation, to
(NP-SBJ-4=0005=001 uma frota para a Índia)
  1. NP-SE treated as ‘indeterminate SE’ in the syntactic annotation (i.e., co-indexed to an expletive NP-SBJ, *exp*) is not marked for reference:
[60] 'se', 
     (NP-SE-3 (CL se)):
(PP (P até)
    (ADVP (CP-FRL (WADVP-2 (WADV onde))
    (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-2)
	    (NP-SBJ-3 *exp*)
	    (NP-SE-3 (CL se))
          (VB-P pode)	
          (IP-INF (VB navegar)
                  (PP (P por)
                      (PP (P entre)
                          (NP (D-F-P as) (N-P ilhas))))
                  (PP (P sem)
                      (NP (Q-NEG nenhum) (N impedimento))))))))
in
 até onde se pode navegar por entre as ilhas sem nenhum impedimento
 'up to where on may navigate among the islands with no impediment'
	
where
(NP-SE-3 (CL se)) is co-indexed, in the syntactic annotation, to
(NP-SBJ-3 *exp*)    


4. Special cases

4.1 Phrases with compound nouns

NPs formed by compound nouns receive an index pertaining the NP and entirely independent of any of the nouns in the composition.

The exact markup depends on whether the NPs are formed with a conjunction or not, as exposed below.


(NP (NPR …)(NPR…))

NPs containing a sequence of proper nouns receive a new number for Referent ID, entirely independent from any of the contained NPRs.

In the first mention of the sequence, the phrase is further tagged =001, for being the first occurrence of the sequence:

[61] 'Pedro Álvares Cabral',
     (NP-SBJ=9001=001 (NPR=0008/1/0008 Pedro) (NPR=0009/1/0009 Álvares) (NPR=0010/1/0010 Cabral)):
((IP-MAT (IP-GER (VB-G REINANDO)
		  (NP-SBJ (D aquele)
			  (ADJP (Q muito)
				(ADJ católico)
				(CONJP (CONJ e)
				       (ADJX (ADJ-S sereníssimo))))
			  (NPR Príncipe)
			  (NP-PRN (NPR el-Rei) (NPR Dom) (NPR MANUEL))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D fez-)
	  (NP-SE-4 (CL -se))
	  (NP-SBJ-4 (D-UM-F uma)
		    (N frota)
		    (PP (P para)
			(NP (D-F a) (NPR Índia)))
		    (CP-REL (WPP-2 (P de)
				   (NP (WPRO que)))
			    (IP-SUB (VB-D ia)
				    (PP (P por)
					(NP (N capitão)
					    (ADJ mór)
					    (NP-GEN *T*-2)))
				    (NP-SBJ=9001=001 (NPR=0008/1/0008 Pedro) (NPR=0009/1/0009 Álvares) (NPR=0010/1/0010 Cabral)))))
	  (. :)
	  (CP-CAR (WNP-3 (WPRO que))
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
			  (SR-D foi)
			  (NP-ACC (D-F a)
				  (ADJ-F segunda)
				  (N navegação)
				  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
					  (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
						  (VB-D fizeram)
						  (NP-SBJ (D-P os) (NPR-P Portugueses))
						  (PP (P para)
						      (NP (D-F-P aquelas)
							  (N-P partes)
							  (PP (P d@)
							      (NP (D @o) (NPR Oriente)))))))
				  (. .)
				  (CP-REL ... ))))
	  (. .))
  (ID G_008,6.1))
[62] 'o Cabo Verde',
     (NP=9007=001 (D @o) (NPR=0020/1/0020 Cabo) (NPR=0021/1/0021 Verde)):
((IP-MAT (CONJ E)
	  (IP-GER (SR-G sendo)
		  (ADJP (ADJ já))
		  (PP (P entre)
		      (NP (D-F-P as)
			  (N-P=0019/0019 ilhas)
			  (PP (P d@)
			      (NP=9007=001 (D @o) (NPR=0020/1/0020 Cabo) (NPR=0021/1/0021 Verde))

NPs containing a sequence of proper nuns, in subsequent mentions of the sequence, receive the same number as applied for the first time the sequence occurred. The phrase is further tagged =002, =003, etc., according to its position in the chain of occurrences of the sequence.

Notice, only, that in this exceptional case – Proper Nouns in combination – the sequences do not have to be repeated in the same exact way in all the occurences to make part of the chain: one or more of the original (NPR …) may be missing. However, the relative order of the included NPRs must be the same:

[63] 'Pedro Álvares',
     (NP-SBJ=9001=002 (NPR=0072/2/0008 Pedro) (NPR=0073/2/0009 Álvares)):
((IP-MAT (PP (P A@)
	      (NP (D @o) (OUTRO outro) (N dia) (ADJ-G seguinte)))
	  (, ,)
	  (VB-D saiu)
	  (NP-SBJ=9001=002 (NPR=0072/2/0008 Pedro) (NPR=0073/2/0009 Álvares))
	  (PP (P em)
              (NP (N terra))...)))


(NP (N …)(CONJ …)(N…))

NPs containing compound nouns in coordinated structures also receive a new number for Referent ID, entirely independent from any of the contained nouns.

In the first occurence of the group in coordination, the phrase is further tagged =001, for being the first occurrence of the group:

[64] 'ouro e pedraria',
     (NP=6015=001 (N=0461/1/0461 ouro) (CONJ e) (N=0462/1/0462 pedraria))
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D Este) (N rio))
	  (VB-P procede)
	  (PP (P de)
	      (NP (D-UM um)
		  (N lago)
		  (ADJP (Q muito) (ADJ-G grande))
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (ET-P está)
				  (PP (P n@)
				      (NP (D @o)
					  (N íntimo)
					  (PP (P d@)
					      (NP (D-F @a) (N terra)))))))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL (WADVP-2 (WADV onde))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
				  (VB-P afirmam)
				  (CP-THT (C que)
					  (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-2)
						  (NP-SBJ *exp*)
						  (HV-P há)
						  (NP-ACC (Q-F-P muitas)
							  (N-P povoações)
							  (, ,)
							  (CP-REL (WNP-3 (WPRO$ cujos) (N-P moradores))
								  ( )
								  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
									  (PP (P segundo)
									      (NP (N fama)))
									  ( <$$paren>)
									  (VB-P possuem)
									  (NP-ACC (ADJ-G-P grandes)
										  (N-P haveres)
										  (PP (P de)
										      (NP=6015=001 (N=0461/1/0461 ouro) (CONJ e) (N=0462/1/0462 pedraria)))))))))))))

In subsequent mentions of a group of nouns in coordination, the NP containing coordinates nouns should in theory receive the same number as applied for the first time the coordinated group occurred, and further tagged =002, =003, etc., according to its position in the chain of occurrences of the group.

However, in this text there was no example of an exact coordination of nouns that occurred more than once.


4.2 Traces – (NP *T*)

[65] (NP-SBJ=0102=002 *T*-1)
((IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Então))
	  (VB-D despediu)
	  (ADVP (ADV logo))
	  (NP-SBJ (NPR Pedro) (NPR Álvares))
	  (NP-ACC (D-UM um)
		  (N navio)
		  (PP (P com)
		      (NP=0102=001 (D-F a) (N=0102/1/0102 nova))
		      (CP-REL *ICH*-2)))
	  (PP (P a)
	      (NP (NPR el-Rei)
		  (NP-PRN (NPR Dom) (NPR Manuel))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-2 (WNP-1=0102=002 (D-F a) (WPRO qual))
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=0102=002 *T*-1)
			    (SR-D foi)
			    (PP (P d@)
				(NP (PRO @ele)))
			    (VB-AN-F recebida)
			    (PP (P com)
				(NP (Q muito)
				    (N prazer)
				    (CONJP (CONJ e)
					   (NX (N contentamento)))))))
	  (. :))
  (ID G_008,7.12))


4.3 Unmarked NPs – (NP *exp*)

[66] 
((IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *exp*)
	  (ADVP (ADV Junto)
		(PP (P d@)
		    (NP (PRO @elas))))
	  (HV-D havia)
	  (NP-ACC (Q-P muitos) (N-P Índios))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-ADV (C quando)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D-P os) (NPR-P Portugueses))
			  (VB-D começaram)
			  (PP (P de)
			      (IP-INF (NP-ACC (CL as))
				      (VB povoar)))))
	  (. :))
(ID G_008,10.71))


General Index

0. Format of the annotation

0.1 Preparatory indexing of POS N* tags
0.2 Format of the annotation on NPs
0.3 Some generalizations

1. Bare Noun Phrases
(NP (N …))

2. Determined Noun Phrases

2.1 Noun Phrases with indefinite determiner, D-UM
2.1.1 With expressed nouns
(NP (D-UM …) (N …))
(NP (D-UM …) (ADJ …) (N …))
2.1.2 With no expressed nouns
(NP (D-UM …) (ADJ …))
(NP (D …))
(NP (D-UM …))

2.2 Noun Phrases with definite determiner, D
2.2.1 With expressed nouns
(NP (D o/a) (N …))
(NP (D este/a) (N …))
(NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …))
2.2.2 With no expressed nouns
(NP (D …) (ADJ))
(NP (D …) (IP-INF …))

2.3 Noun Phrases with OUTRO (‘ohter’)
2.3.1 With expressed nouns
(NP (OUTRO …) (N …))
(NP (D …) (OUTRO …) (N …))
2.3.2 With no expressed nouns
(NP (D …) (OUTRO …))
(NP (OUTRO …))

2.4 Noun Phrases with Q
2.4.1 With expressed nouns
(NP (Q …) (N …))
(NP (Q …) (D …) (N …))
(NP (D …) (Q …) (N …))
2.4.2 With no expressed nouns
(NP (Q-G …) (D-UM …))

2.5 Noun Phrases with NUM
2.5.1 With expressed nouns
(NP (NUM …) (N …))
(NP (D …) (NUM …) (N …))
2.5.2 With no expressed nouns
(NP (NUM …))

2.6 Noun Phrases with PRO$
2.6.1 With expressed nouns
(NP (PRO$ …) (N …))
(NP (D …) (PRO$ …) (N …))
2.6.2 With no expressed nouns
(NP (D …) (PRO$ …))

2.7 Noun Phrases with DEM
(NP (DEM …))

3. Noun Phrases with Pronouns

(NP (PRO …))
(NP (CL …))
(NP *pro*)
(WNP (WPRO …))
(NP-SE (SE …))

4. Special cases

4.1 Phrases with compound nouns
(NP (NPR …) (NPR…))
(NP (NX …) (N…))

4.2 Traces – (NP *T*)

4.3 Unmarked NPs – (NP *exp*)



Index by reference pattern

 

I. Noun phrases always marked as new referents

I.1 Noun phrases with an indefinite determiner,
and a noun: (NP (D-UM …) (N …))
an adjective, and a noun: (NP (D-UM …) (ADJ …) (N …))

I.2 Noun phrases with a definite determiner,
most adjectives, and a noun: (NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …))
no adjective, and no noun: (NP (D …))
and a clause: (NP (D …) (IP-INF …))

I.3 Noun phrases with OUTRO,
and a noun: (NP (OUTRO …) (N …))
a definite determiner, and a noun: (NP (D …) (OUTRO …) (N …))

I.4 Noun phrases with a quantifier,
and a noun: (NP (Q …) (N …))
and a definite determiner, and a noun: (NP (Q …) (D …) (N …))
and a noun: (NP (D …) (Q …) (N …))
with the quantifier ‘cada’, an indefinite determiner, and no noun: (NP (Q-G …) (D-UM …))

I.5 Noun phrases with a numeral,
and a noun: (NP (NUM …) (N …))
a definite determiner, and a noun: (NP (D …) (NUM …) (N …))
and no noun: (NP (NUM …)

I.6 Noun phrases with a possessive,
and a noun: (NP (PRO$ …) (N …))
a definite determiner, and a noun: (NP (D …) (PRO$ …) (N …))
a definite determiner, and no noun: (NP (D …) (PRO$ …))

 

II. Noun phrases never marked as new referents

II.1 Noun phrases with a definite determiner,
the determiner ‘este/a’, and a noun: (NP (D este/a) (N …))
an adjective ‘mesmo/a’ or ‘tal, and a noun: (NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …))
an adjective, and no noun: (NP (D …) (ADJ …))

II.2 Noun phrases with OUTRO,
a definite determiner, and no noun: (NP (D …) (OUTRO …))

II.3 Noun phrases with a pronoun,
a strong pronoun: (NP (PRO …))
a clitic pronoun: (NP (CL …))
a *pro*: (NP *pro*)
a relative pronoun: (WNP (WPRO …))
a ‘se’ clitic: (NP-SE (SE …))

II.4 Noun phrases with a demonstrative: (NP (DEM …))

 

III. Noun phrases marked both as new referents and as further mentions

III.1 Bare noun phrases:(NP (N …))

III.2 Noun phrases with an indefinite determiner, and no noun: (NP (D-UM …))

III.3 Noun phrases with a definite determiner,
and a noun: (NP (D o/a) (N …))
an adjective, and a noun: (NP (D …) (ADJ …) (N …))

III.4 Noun phrases with OUTRO, no determiner, and no noun: (NP (OUTRO …))


Anúncios
%d blogueiros gostam disto: